Saturday, 3 August 2019

Chronology of the colonial goods

Andrew Stepanenko
25 May, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna 

There are three reliable bases for dating of Europeans’ crossing the borders of their continent: 1) appearance of the colonial goods in the European markets, 2) acclimatisation of overseas cultures in Europe and 3) acclimatization of overseas cultures to the conditions of other overseas colonies.

Hernan Cortes reported about vanilla growing in Mexico in 1528, and it was described in detail in the work of Bernardino de Sahagun in 1577. However the first attempt to adapt precious vanilla (to the conditions of the Seychelles) was dated in 1756, the second (to the conditions of Java island) – in 1816, and the third (to the conditions of Reunion) - 1819. The gap is, at least, 179 years (1577-1756).
The way to achieve vanilla fructification by artificial pollinating was discovered in 1841 on the French island Reunion (the official version), but the Dutchmen had achieved fructification on Java by 1834, and Frenchmen reaped a harvest in the Seychelles right after 1756.
The date “1756” is doubtful: the role of a pollen tube became clear only in 1836. In 1841 there were no these problems any more.
It is possible to fix a disorder in dating, but the main thing here is that for the first time vanilla began to be supplied officially not from Mexico after 1841.
The epoch date is 1841.

Let’s intentionally make a false assumption that mate and coca are not the same, and consider them separately. It’s necessary to remind here that mate was introduced into the region by Christians (it is dated 1691). For the first time the order to grow “mate potion” was given by Governor-general and the Supreme Court of Asuncion, Hernando Arias de Saavedra - in 1592-1594. Actually, mate plantations appeared in Paraguay only in 1821 when during military special action at the territory of Argentina a botanist Aimé Bonpland was stolen and taken out to Paraguay - a unique qualified expert in this area. Readiness for mate export from Paraguay should be dated 1830 when Bonpland was released when he was not needed. We haven’t found later data concerning mate.
So, the epoch date is 1830.

We will remind that coca was imported to Peru and Bolivia from Mexico. The first news about coca are dated 1505 - in connection with taxes to the Spanish crown, with nature products. In 1571 the volume of coca production was estimated at half a million dollars, but the only consumers of coca were Indians working at silver mines of the South America. From 1785 until 1795, coca-traffic was estimated at 2.641.487 dollars. The consumer of coca was not stated. In 1850 the income of Bolivia for coca realization was 200 thousand dollars, but the consumer was still absent. In 1862, the total revenue of the Latin American countries for coca sale estimated at more than 30 million pounds, but the consumer of this coca was missing. In 1863 in France there appeared wine with coca addition that was connected with the success of chemists, who managed to isolate cocaine. This is the first direct evidence concerning coca entering the European markets.
The epoch date is 1863, however, actually, it is the date of coca naturalization as coca, but not as mate, tea, snuff or chewing tobacco.

We will remind that smoking tobacco was created by cross breeding of the Argentina and Peruvian species, and was delivered to Cuba through Brazil and Colombia, that is, tobacco is a product of the European selectors. The first steady series of the cigar factories foundation in Cuba was in 1844-1848. At this time Europe, America and Russia preferred snuffing and chewing to smoking. Here we have the beginning of the product line.
The epoch date is 1844.

We will remind that, actually, the first snuff was cut coca leaves. For this reason there are no evidences concerning where exactly snuff tobacco was grown. They began to add known to us tobacco into snuff stuff not earlier than 1844.
Snuff production in Europe was developed by Catherine de’ Medici in 1561, but in 1566 she forgot about it in a odd way, and the following first snuff factory was created already in Seville in 1620. Then snuff appeared in China, Germany, and only in 1730 - in Virginia. Then, in 1733 - again in Germany and, again, for the first time. As you can see, evidences and dates are absolutely unreliable.
In 1794 in the USA snuff was taxed. Smoking and chewing tobacco were not mentioned, and, probably, they just did not exist at that time. The causes were purely of technological character: for chewing tobacco, it was necessary to be able to extract alkaloids, and this problem would be solved only in 1820. Well, and smoking tobacco would become the object of selectors’ interest about 1844.
In 1837 there appeared the first statistics of snuff tobacco production in Russia, at Zhukov's factory, and it is the first date of reliable snuff fixing in the Old World.
We would assume as the epoch date 1794 – the year when snuff was taxed.

The first box with chewing tobacco was produced in Stockholm in 1822. As a result chewing tobacco became extremely popular in Scandinavia, and smoking tobacco which came later could not fully force it out. We trust this evidence. In Sweden there worked the best chemists of that epoch, and in 1820 they learnt to extend alkaloids from leaves using lime, leach and potash. Without lime it was not possible to obtain chewing tobacco. In 1860 on the accounting records of Virginia and Northern Carolina, there were 348 factories manufacturing chewing tobacco in these states, and only 6 of them produced smoking tobacco, as a by-product from waste of the basic production.
The epoch date is 1822.

Evidences and dates are mostly doubtful. The first reliable fact seams foundation of a pipe tobacco factory by Robert Morris and his son in 1858. As the second reliable evidence we consider the permission of pipe tobacco sale in Russia in 1860. It is just the most beginning of cheap variants of smoking tobacco - soon after appearance of the expensive variant - cigars (1844-1848).
We will remind that smoking in the street in Russia ceased to be a crime only in 1865, and opium intake, not in the form of solution, but by means of smoking had started to develop in California since 1871. The technology of smoking was still new.
The epoch date is 1858.

1828 Sample planting of tobacco in Crimea
1829 First planting of tobacco in Mysore (India)
We suppose, it is about the contemporary tobacco.
The epoch date is 1828.

They write that Hernan Cortes had seen for cocoa the first time in Mexico, but it was already cultivated cocoa species - Criollo. The cocoa native land is Peru. Genetics have very precisely located the progenitor birthplace, this is Iquitos. We will present a map of genetic clusters.

And here is a problem. The Maya Empire had never reached such size and had no commercial relations with these places. Here is the Empire map.

By Aldan-2 - [1][2], CC BY-SA 4.0,

The Europeans are again under suspicion. We will list the basic arguments.

1. Europeans are the only stratum in the region, having technical possibility to carry out so scale rotation of inoculum.
2. The same pattern as the one with cocoa (selection, inoculum transfer and acclimatization), happens with coca and tobacco. It is already a complete system, and neither the Maya, nor the Peruvians of cultural haven’t left traces in this system, - we can only see the European traces.
3. They write that the Aztecs had known cocoa since XIV century, that is, rather close to the epoch of Mexico conquer by Hernan Cortes. Deflections of dates up to 250 years in the history of colonies is an ordinary fact.
4. The Aztecs considered cocoa as a gift of Quetzalcoatl, and Quetzalcoatl  was Hernan Cortes. Perhaps, it’s better to summarize all facts in a table.

Deity: Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl
The conquistador: Hernan Cortes Ketsalkoatl

Deity: the Source: American Indian chronicles
The conquistador: the Source: American Indian and Spanish chronicles

Deity: arrived in the year of Cē Ācatl (Cane)
The conquistador: arrived in the year of Cē Ācatl (Cane)

Deity: arrived by sea, from the east
The conquistador: arrived by sea, from the east

Deity: tall, white-skinned, bearded
The conquistador: tall, white-skinned, bearded

Deity: wore not American Indian metal helmet
The conquistador: wore not American Indian metal helmet

Deity: conquered the capital - Tenōchtitlan
The conquistador: conquered the capital - Tenōchtitlan

Deity: was expelled from the capital by conspirators
The conquistador: was expelled from the capital by conspirators

Deity: came back and brought the power back
The conquistador: came back and brought the power back

Deity: conquered all the Maya territory
The conquistador: conquered all the Maya territory

Deity: taught monogamy
The conquistador: taught Christian monogamy

Deity: forbade human sacrifices
The conquistador: forbade human sacrifices

Deity: presented a calendar and marked the doomsday date
The conquistador: presented the European calendar and marked "Apocalypse"

Deity: all reforms were made during his life
The conquistador: all reforms were made during his life

Deity: bore a name of Nakshitl - Four-footed
The conquistador: had a general for horsemen nickname - Four-footed

Deity: around his epoch the Maya city became empty
The conquistador: during time of his reign 95 % of the population of Mexico died because of smallpox

Deity: departured on a raft made from snakes to the east
The conquistador: departured by the ship made from boards to the east

Deity: sailed from Mexico as an elderly person
The conquistador: sailed from Mexico to Spain at the age of 55

Deity: promised to return to Mexico personally
The conquistador: had full opportunity to return personally

Deity: ruled 19 years
The conquistador: ruled 19 years (1521-1540)

Deity: a real historical figure
The conquistador: a real historical figure

Deity: idolised as Ketsalkoatl
The conquistador: idolised as Ketsalkoatl

Deity: In Chichén-Itzá there was a holiday of enemies three times
The conquistador: Cortes invaded Mēxihcah three times

Deity: Chichén-Itzá - a reservoir of Itzá people
The conquistador: Mēxihcah was on a lake

5. Cocoa-beans were used as payment means, and it is a standard European work scheme in colonies: the population was laid under tribute with nature product which had maximum value in Europe. Therefore, in Cuzco they paid their tithe with coca, in India with opium, and in Mexico City - cocoa beans.
6. Iquitos - the native land of the cocoa progenitor - was founded by Jesuits in 1757. Here in 1864 “the rubber fever” began, and the heart of all that process was the same - thoughtful selection work, huge investments and super-profits as a result. It not the American Indian work organization.

That will do. Among counterarguments, we have found the only one: somewhere have found a fossil pot with traces of two alkaloids, and one of them was theobromine. Neither pre-European plantations, nor pre-European warehouses for cocoa, nor pre-European dishes for cocoa were found. We can see pictures from the Vatican library, but no dishes in the museum - only modern, Europeanized. After all, considering ostensibly ritual drinking tradition, such dishes - with integral ethnic colour - should be in every house.

Already in 1525, 4 years after Cortes's invading Mexico, Criollo cocoa was imported to Tobago. That put the well-known history of invading Mexico under question. And in 1530 German company Welser got engaged in cocoa cultivation. How Welser got in touch with Cortes was not reported.
In 1784 cocoa was already not a secret any longer, but was not imported neither to Jamaica, nor to West India yet, and it is indeed a historical problem.
In 1810 encyclopaedia Britannica had no information about Mexican cocoa, deliveries were made from the South America.
The first chocolate factory was founded in 1819, soon after invention of the technology of cocoa-powder dissolution. The epoch date seams to be 1819, but there is still something else.
In 1834 cocoa was imported into Sri Lanka for the first time, and it is already a reliable evidence.
The epoch date is 1834.

Sugar is the Old World product, and, extremely expensive, so we suppose, sweet stuff helped the conventional East to develop. Sugar is fast energy for the body. For this reason the development of beet and sugarcane growing should become № 1 problem. We observe realistic evidences.

1822 - the first sugar beet appeared in Ukraine
1827 - the first sugar beet appeared in Russia
1829 - (the date is approximate) the first sugarcane planting were started in India
1830 – the first ideas of sugarcane planted in the USA appeared
1831 - (the date is calculated) the first sugarcane plantations appeared in Louisiana
1835 - the first sugarcane plantations appeared in Hawaii
From 1838 till 1879 there were about 14 unsuccessful attempts to adjust sugar beet output in the USA
Winnebago and Chippewa tribes supplied a lot of maple syrup to the North West Fur Company. The most of maple sugar and syrup was produced in the period from 1850 to 1890. That is, even in the period of 1850-1890 the sugar hunger had not been satisfied yet.

As the text purpose is to date a real outlet of Europe in the outer market, the epoch date is 1829, the first sugarcane planting in India.

Apples of love was not the most important product, that is why for the first time manufacturers got interested in it in 1876: Heinz started to produce ketchup. In Crimea, it was planted for the first time in 1883. Dates are real.
The epoch date is 1876.

Archeologists assert that sunflower seeds were found in the Moscow suburbs territory at excavations sites of the ancient settlement dated VII-V centuries B.C. This error of dating is not our problem but it is necessary to know about such things.
In 1510 the sunflower was planted in the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, and in 1769 there was the first mention of industrial cultivation of sunflower. The gap is 259 years, and we have already seen this gap - in the Spanish evidences concerning geographical discoveries. In general, Europe was not interested in sunflower.
In 1828 in Russia, the serf from the Alekseevskaya village produced sunflower seed oil for the first time. In 1842 in Russia, the serf from the Alekseevskaya village produced sunflower seed oil for the first time once again. In such situation, the second date is more reliable.
The epoch date is 1842.

In 1515 corn has been planted in all parts of Southern Europe, however this magnificent culture was used in national cuisine only in Moldova. In 1540, thanks to Turks, corn appeared in Egypt, and thus the American settlers received a corn harvest for the first time in 1770, 255 years later after it was in widely planted in all Southern Europe. Here we have the same gap of 250 years that we have seen in the Chronology of geographical discoveries.

To England corn have started to import in 1828, into France - in 1831, and in 1847 in Russia have begun free distribution of corn seeds - for encouragement of deluting of new culture.
Epoch date 1828 though also 1847 is good.

In 1795 they finally grew 8.3 kg of potato in England, that is, potato introduction by the tsar Peter I in Russia at the beginning of the 18 century seems doubtful. In 1813 potato was grown in Perm, but not in sufficient quantity. In 1817 potato hunger in Ireland is fixed. The cause of interest to this culture was as follows: potato was necessary for paper and paste production. Frenchmen also managed even to make explosive out of it, and, judging by regular potato revolts, peasants were forced to grow potato for the needs of the state to the detriment of own communities’ needs. In Krasnoyarsk in 1835 and there was the following situation: the households that were not engaged in potato growing for the country were sent to build fortresses. So potato was ground into starch by the whole village, and all that product was taken out from the village.
In 1820 the first potato was planted on Hawaii.
In 1834 there passed a series of potato mutinies in Russia.
The epoch date is 1817. Judging by hunger, it is the first date of mass planting.

For the first time the sapling of a cinchona tree was exported from the South America to Java in 1852.
The second batch of saplings was exported in 1865. It was also the beginning.
The epoch date is 1852.

In 1839 it was possible to create the real rubber.
In 1864, with delay in 25 years, “the rubber fever” began in the Jesuit city of Iquitos.
Only in 1876 hevea seeds were stolen at last, exported, and in 1889 mature saplings of rubber-bearing plants were offered to the farmers of Malaysia
The epoch date is 1864 – the year of the beginning of "the rubber fever”.

Quite innocent tea forms a basis for added psychoactive stuff, the same as tobacco for opium. The assimilated better with a basic stuff.

1834 Java. The first tea plantation
1834-1835 England. The tea-plant breeding committee in India was created
1836 India. The first batch of Assam tea occurred in the markets of Calcutta
1838 England, India. A small batch of the Indian tea was sent to England
1838 France. Several thousand tea-plants were planted in the south of the country
1839 India. Tea plantations in Bengal are laid out
1840 England. Duchess of Bedford, brought into fashion evening tea drinking
1897 England. The new tradition - a morning lunch with tea - was introduced

The epoch date is 1834.

They write that hashish was imported into Europe by Napoleon - after the Egyptian campaign, however for the first time Paris tried to eat hashish (nobody did not smoke, and did not know what it was at that time) in the Club des Hashischins only in 1843. Hashish got into hands of physicians a bit earlier - in 1840-1841. In Greece marihuana was started to grow in 1875. It brings under question a great amount of medieval and antique evidences, however, actually, it is easy to understand: in 1840-1843 hashish got into free sale, became accessible to everyone, and before that it circulated in a quite narrow circle of hospitals and drugstores.
The epoch date is 1843.

There are a lot of events, therefore we take only concerning business.
In 1813 the development of coffee plantations began in Brazil
In 1814 Jamaica manufactured 34 million pounds of coffee
In 1815 coffee was mentioned on Sumatra
In 1817 coffee was planted on Hawaii
In 1820 Cuba exported 10 thousand tons of coffee
In 1820 they started to drink coffee in Scandinavia
In 1825 the British laid out coffee plantations on Ceylon Island
In 1829 they started to grow coffee in Mysore (India)
In 1834 coffee became the basic culture of Brazil
In 1834 there appeared the first coffee plantations in El Salvador
In 1844 there appeared the first coffee plantations in Nicaragua
In 1854 coffee plantations were laid out in Guatemala

A sequence is quite logical. We could not find sufficient evidences until 1813. They write that coffee was grown in Cuba, in Mexico, in Santo-Domingo in 1790, however, there are no reasons that the others countries (in particular, Brazil) lagged behind for so many years.
The epoch date is 1813.

The Peruvian cotton is a long-fiber type, that is why it is suitable for weaving. In 1793 Louisiana manufactured the first 90 pounds of cotton. It is important, because sugarcane was introduced even later in Louisiana, by 1831. It makes slaves import to be entirely devoid of sense. There was still no work for slaves there. The history changes a little again.

1817 - Cotton boom started in Alabama and Mississipi
1817 - Peruvian cotton was delivered to Egypt
1820 - 82 % of fabrics were made of hemp
1820 - cotton-cleaning technology pressed hemp industry
1828 - Cotton association propagated cotton seeds
1828 - Peruvian cotton was delivered to India (Berar)
1830 - Peruvian cotton was planted by the Alsatians in Algeria
1840 - Peruvian cotton is planted by the Alsatians in Texas
1880 - the first sowings of cotton appeared in the south of Russia

The first cotton stock exchange was opened in the USA in 1870.

We would appoint the epoch date as 1828, it is the time of active distribution of seeds.

1810 – the first silk factory in America
1829 - silkworm worms were delivered to Bengal from Italy
The epoch date is 1810.

Now we will result the complete list of the epoch dates. It is also the period when the colonies began to work on mother countries.

1794. Snuff was taxed
1810. The first silk factory in America appeared
1813. The development of coffee plantations in Brazil started
1817. Potato hunger in Ireland started
1822. The first box with chewing tobacco
1828. Corn import to England was resolved
1828. Active distribution of Peruvian cotton seeds started
1828. Sample planting of tobacco in the Crimea appeared
1829. The first sugarcane planting in India appeared
1830. Mate plantations in Paraguay were ready to export
1834. Tea-plant Distribution Committee in India
1834. Cocoa was for the first time imported into Sri Lanka
1841. Vanilla began to fructify on Reunion
1842. Sunflower-seed oil was received
1843. Hashish in Paris was on free sale
1844. The first cigar brands were created in Cuba
1852. Export of the cinchona tree saplings from China
1858. The factory of pipe tobacco was built by Robert Morris and his son
1863. Naturalization of coca as coca, instead of tea or tobacco
1864. The beginning of "the rubber fever”
1876. The output of ketchup "Heinz" began

There are two reasons for so the late period:
1. There appeared a steam power-saw bench, and a vessel sewed from boards of machine quality, cost several times cheaper, and was longer in use.
2. There was a violent concentration of the capital, and the great capital was equal to the task to solve those problems - for the first time.

There is a clear gap of about 250 years between the epoch of the America discovery and the epoch of the Jesuits order liquidation. The colonial plants were discovered in the first epoch, and the European science was acquainted with them routinely in the second. Acclimatisation of cultures happened even later – in the 1820s. This third epoch was also an epoch of growing requirement for workforce in the colonies. Until that period there was absolutely no need in manpower from Africa and Europe in the colonies.

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