Friday, 1 November 2019

Slavery and demography in the USA

Andrew Stepanenko

July 03, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna

We have already seen that the antique slavery was a time-limited obligation (up to 4-7 years) to pay off a debt - sometimes in a form of work. During re-elections of the supreme power the debt was written off everywhere – that is why there were so many fcanemen in antiquity. So it was in Judea, Ancient Rome and Russia. Here we have a question: who taught American slave-traders, and was the American slavery that kind of slavery, which was so picturesquely described for us in fiction?

I present two maps. On the left, there is the slave-trade centres, on the right - the states that existed prior to the epoch of the Europeans’ sea exploration. Correlations are total: slaves were delivered only therefrom where there was statehood of feudal type.

It means that black workers were delivered approximately in the same order as serfs were sold in Europe. Nobody did not run with a lasso in the jungles to catch a victim; black peasants were simply given the order, and they walked up on rule of the ships of their new misters.

It is a high time to remember bills of sale for manors in Russia - without any mention of actual peasants’ sale - and once again, to focus our attention on the fact that it was not people trade; they traded the feudal rights to using other people's work. Moreover, the trade was not direct, but mediate, through becoming related with someone: at first, the buyer became related with the seller through marriage with the local princess, and only then, her serfs submitted to him.

How many times such operation of the latent resale could repeat? According to the Irish national right it was authorized to marry a daughter up to 21 times, and with each marriage she represented the increasing value as she acquired more and more property (within the limits of customer law it was inaliennable) with every husband.

For peasants the legal situation did not change in case of such camouflaged resales; they simply submitted to the regent of their tribal prince. Responsibility for assignment of rights to peasants for money was accepted by the tribal elite - in France of 18 century it was the French elite, and in a case with the Afro-Americans - the African one.

Base claims of the Afro-Americans to white people should be cancelled here - once and forever. Secondary claims, as thrashing, have the right to life for the present. However, this category of claims is deprived of racial shade, - all saves were thrashed. Moreover, approximately 20 % of the people imported into colonies were white slaves from Europe and only about 13 % - Afro-Americans. In addition, behind each group of the imported people there was a tribal feudal lord who had transferred them to their new mister. This is not a racial, but social and historical problem.

Pennsylvania is interesting because Quakers and Barings Bank created it from the very beginning. It looks like a large social experiment of the huge and rather independent capital. For the first time Quakers of Pennsylvania liberated slaves in 1788 - one year prior to the very first slogans of the Great French Revolution. In my reconstruction with a shift in 59 years (the most widespread one), it was 1847. Moreover, in 1847 slaves of Pennsylvania were liberated once again and officially as well. The main thing, in 1847 in Pennsylvania and in 1845 in Illinois BONDAGE slaves were liberated.

The exact text:
1845 Illinois In V. Jarrot, the Illinois Supreme Court frees the last indentured ex-slaves in the state who were born after the Northwest Ordinance. [74]
1847 Pennsylvania The last indentured ex-slaves, born before 1780 (fewer than 100 in the 1840 census [84], but over than 60 and also over than 25) are fcane.
The source:

The keyword is indentured – the meaning is: a person who is bounded with the agreement or concluded a contract. I will remind that they officially meant slaves. In one case, the expression indentured ex-slaves was prescribed to the Irish, but Irish were usual called as indentured servants for life, and it had absolutely different meaning - lifelong hiring.

This is the reason to consider that some part of slaves in the USA were legally not in bondage slavery, and in 1847 in Pennsylvania they made an redemption experiment which 1-2 years later would be implemented in all Europe.

It seems most likely that the first settlers in the USA were counts with their serfs and bondage debtors. I will result two pair examples, which are significant and adequate to the America exploration epoch.
Count Albemarle was a count title in Great Britain. Albemarle is a district in Virginia, the USA.
Lord Delaware was the governor-general in America. Delaware is a state of the USA.

Therefore, all colonial properties were partitioned by royal charter into one of four types: proprietary, royal, joint stock, or covenant.
The source:

It not an exception; in 1864 more than half of cities of Poland were possessory, that is, they belonged to certain families. During the same epoch, possessory cities were fixed in Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Transcaucasia. It means that all costs bore private owners of settlements, that is, budgets were decentralized, and we should speak with care about a single state up to 1860s.

Asiento was the right to trade slaves passing from one country to another. This word is translated as "consent" (Spanish reale asiento meaning exactly “the royal consent”), meaning the permission given to private persons on trade in black slaves. However the exact meaning of the word asiento – “a sitting, a place”, and words “hacienda”, “fazenda” related to it mean “a manor, an estate”. Synchronously all this set of concepts existed in Russia of the seigniorial epoch - having actually the exact meaning - as a sitting, a manor, feeding.
I will add that it is possible to take away and capure a sitting, a manor and feeding, and captuing reale asiento (the royal consent) by other state is deprived of sense.

The overwhelming majority of the Afro-Americans according to the genetic analysis come from the Fulbe people, and this is from Mali. There are two evidences of departure to America of huge fleets from Mali - in 1311 and 1331. And nobody, except sultans of Mali, could not send so many representatives of the Fulbe people oversea. It was the sultan of Mali Musa I who invested huge amount of gold in the world economy in 1324. Dates are misleading – the history of Mali is a huge white gap, however chronologically these two types of events - enormous export of gold from the country and mass people export from the country - happened absolutely nearby and are definitely connected with some internal locally Mali crisis.

The consensus of the leading archeologists, anthropologists, ethnohistorians, linguists and other modern scientists specialising in the Pre-Columbian era, assert that there are no evidences on any mass Fulbe people travel to America. However, these arguments are not quite correct: there are clear evidences; they don’t just match the Euro-centrism paradigms.

Extracts from the material: I.I. Komarova. Moslems in the South America (Комарова И. И. Мусульмане в Южной Америке)

There are numerous evidences that Moslems from Spain and the Western Africa appeared in America at least five centuries before Columbus did, in particular, during rule of the caliph Abdul-Rahman III Umayyad (929 961).
The historian and geographer Abu-al-Hasan Ali ibn Al-Huseyn Al-Masudi (871-957) wrote in his book “Gold Placers and Mines of Jewelry” that during the rule of the Caliph of Spain Abdulla Ibn Muhammad (888-912), Hashhash ibn Saed ibn Asvad - a Moslem from Cordoba - floated from Delba (Palos) in 889 year, crossed the Atlantic, reached the unknown territory (Ard Majhoola) and come back with incredible treasures.
On October 12th, 1492 Columbus landed on a small island at the Bahamas which natives called Guanahana (Guanahany). It was renamed into San Salvador by Columbus; the name Ganahany had West African origin (“Brothers of Hany”).
Ferdinand Columbus, Christopher’s son, wrote about the Afro-Americans noticed by his father in Honduras: “People who live further to the east from Puanta Cavinas to the Cape Grekaios Dios, are almost black”. At the same time a tribe of the Moslems known as almami lived in the same region. In the tribe language Mandinka (Mandingo) and the Arabian languages “almami” means "Al-imam", that is a person reciting a prayer or the head of the Moslem community.
Leo Wiener, a well-known American historian, a linguist, a specialist in the problems of linguistic interference, from the Harvard University wrote in his book “Africa and America Discovery” (1920) that Columbus knew perfectly well about presence of representatives of the tribe Mandinka in the New World, and that they had spread along the Caribbean basin and territories accessible to them.
In 1920s Leo Wiener composed three volumes of linguistic coincidence in the languages of Indians and Africans. One more volume was added by the Frenchman G.Covais in 1930. Thorough studying of lexicon of various languages led Wiener to the conclusion that “the African influence on the American continent could not appear before XI century as many Mandinka words in the Pre-Columbian layers of the American Indian languages possess obvious traces of the Arabian influence”.

When Hernan Cortes invaded Mexico, his call was “Santiago Matamoros!” (Saint Jago, beat moors!). Here it would be necessary to tell that Saint Jago (Apostle Jacob, Jago-Moorstruggler) to whom soldiers addressed, was one of the most significant saints of the Catholic church structures of Latin America. This apostle sacrificed all his life for the war with moors and Mamelukes, appearing in front of Christian armies and helping to kill Moslems, - basically, in America.

Only in America the nickname Matamoros is immortalized in administrative toponymy: such name has the municipality in the sate of Tamaulipas (Mexico). Moreover, here is one more coincidence, the surname Matamoros had a Mexican priest-patriot who was a talented commander in the juvenile country.

In the Old World apostle Jacob, or Santiago Matamoros, had a different nickname: Santiago Matagodos, but t is impossible to find this word in the dictionaries. Google-translator gives out “the murderer of  goths”, but couple of years earlier it was “Saint Jago the Hooligan”.

Here is a citation from El Mercurio

El apóstol Santiago fue un ejemplo: venerado en la península ibérica como “matamoros”, llegó al Nuevo Mundo y se trasplantó como “mataindios”. En un acomodo iconográfico, la población autóctona creó al Santiago “matagodos”, lo que confirma, a juicio de Rodrigo Gutiérrez, profesor de la Universidad de Granada, en España, que los cultos no sólo fueron imposiciones, sino que también elecciones.
Los cambios en el arte americano tras la independencia
Artículo publicado en “Artes y Letras”, El Mercurio

I.I.Komarova writes in her book that after Baiano’s death, the leader of the Islamic opposition in Panama Spaniards initiated efforts to destroy any mention of Islam. Modern Panama history books try not to mention the fact of Islamic presence at the early period of the country history.

A Catholic priest Juan Lorente directly argues that the Saint Inquisition has withdrawn ALL books about America. The history of the continent exploration, as a matter of fact, was entirely rewritten and changed.

Africans from the intercepted slaveholding courts were unloaded on two land sports - Liberia and Sierra Leone. Britain was engaged in struggle against slave trading from 1788 to 1873 - 85 years. Theoretically, genetic strangers at the territory of Sierra Leone and Liberia should be the same amount as the Russians in Siberia - 95 percent. However, proportions are opposite: in Liberia descendants of slaves are 5 %, and in Sierra Leone - 10 %.

Taking into consideration the dynamics of the population growth typical for these two countries, it was enough to unload 2100 people in Liberia in 1847, to achieve the increase up to contemporary figures.

Such situation calls into question the duration and the degree of involvement into the struggle of Great Britain against slave trading.

From 1847 to 1861, 5.79 million emigrants from Europe were exported to the colony. The Afro-Americans of the USA basing at the Liberian population increase rate (not the highest one) would reach the contemporary figure, if for the same period of 1847-1861 they had been imported into the USA in seven times less quantity than Europeans - 800 thousand.

The most important thing here - this proportion one to seven. Emigrants thanks to whom there has developed the current demographic situation in the USA, intensely has been moving into the country since 1820 with great peaks in second half of 19 century. On one hand, it happened because in 1848 there was the Great Social revolution in Europe, and only then millions peasants appeared superfluous in the labour market. On the other hand, only by 1840, steam engines had massively been expanded, and for the first time there appeared a steam power-saw bench, so, cheap shipboard was accessible. Moreover, only since 1825 there appeared a serious interest to agricultural crops of America in Europe.

There simply existed neither technical possibilities, nor motive to import black workers, especially, in million quantity, before that period. I will show development of labour market requirements in the USA in terms of the American agricultural cultures.

In practice, tobacco (and it was proved to be mostly narcotic plants) were never trusted to slaves, - the American regional specialists clearly write about that fact.

Officially, they managed to adapt sugar cane in Louisiana for the first time only after 1831. Earlier attempts to acclimatize the Egyptian cane appeared to be unsuccessful. Probably, by 1831 they managed to get some hybrid with island forms of cane.

There were no cane plantations in the USA until 1831 - accordingly – there were no labour needs.

Suitable for weaving Peruvian long staple cotton was found by Europeans in 1773. It is a fact, and it is based on numerous technical information. Englishmen imported into the USA the technology of cotton processing in 1789, and only then the USA business became interested in cotton. The first cotton in Louisiana was received in 1790 - 90 pounds, that is, 36 kg. Business developed quickly, and in 1810 in Louisiana they grew up already 37 thousand tons. In 1817 the cotton boom began.

That is, up to 1810-1817 the cotton planters had no need in black slaves - owing to absence of plantations.

Let’s summarize: particularly in the USA the need in slaves appeared around 1810 and jerky increased after 1817 and after 1831.

The main culture giving profit to Brazil was coffee. The first coffee tree in Brazil was mentioned in 1813, and merchandise volumes of coffee appeared by 1834. That is, slaves at coffee plantations were not required up to 1834.

The centre of rubber production, the city of Iquitos, was founded in Brazil in 1857, and the beginning of rubber fever stated in 1864.

Cigar factories in Southern and Central America began to increase since 1845, that is, until that time there were no any cigar tobacco plantations.

In 1809 Encyclopedia Britanica notices only four points of cocoa delivery: Caracas, Cartagena, Darien and Amazonia. In general cocoa plantations development in Brazil dates from 1820.

Up to 1809-1845 slaves in the South America were not required, - the same situation, as in the North America. The bottom border of labour requirement in the New World is 1809-1810.

In 1818 England came to an agreement with Spain and Portugal, and those abandoned the right to trade slaves. In 1819 England also forced Holland to do it, in 1827 - Sweden, and in 1835 - Denmark and France.

Here we have a block of the connected events.
1809-1810 - labour requirement processed in colonies.
1818-1835 - seven countries abandoned the right to trade slaves under England’s pressure.
1842 - a series of important international agreements concerning abandoning the right to trade slaves took place.
1847 – is the estimated date of transferring of the released slaves in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
1848 - all-European the “Spring of Nations” declared personal liberty of a person.
All epoch of slave trading keeps within the period of 1809-1847 Earlier slaves were not required, and later it was a penal act. Moreover, I will remind, once again, it, in practice, it was not human trade; it was feudal people rights trade.

General dynamics of immigration to the USA is as follows:

The reasons of exponential emigrations from Europe are obvious:
- The land reforms that resulted in throwing out unnecessary peasants to the labour market;
- Increasing popularity of American agricultural crops;
- Development of steamship building, giving technical possibility to carry people in one direction, and coffee, sugar and cotton - in the other direction;

Moreover, it is clear that there are certain problems with statistics: from 1882 to 1887, when peasants in Ireland and Russia (and, according to the dates of end of the 49-year-old redemption, in all Europe) were transferred to the compulsory land redemption, and emigration had to achieve unprecedented progress, Brockhaus and Ephron's encyclopedia has data gaps.

This data gap calls into question into general figures of censuses in the USA. I will remind here that in 1890 the copyists who got sunk in their own manipulations lost 13 million people. I will show the summary table of the censuses data.

The data relation of 1890 to 1880 is the same, as well as 1880 to 1870 - around 1.28, and it cannot be so, as in 1880 emigration got huge increase, - for example, in 1880-1889 1 445 181 Germans left Germany for the USA, and there were also other countries.

Possibly, therefore the initial censuses data of 1890 are not accessible in full amount. Almost all lists of inhabitants were spoilt at a fire in the cellar of the Commerce Building in Washington in 1921. Approximately 25 % of materials were destroyed, 50 % were damaged by fire, smoke and water where the most part of documents stayed during the whole night because of failure to act of the archive workers.

What is the importance of earlier censuses data in such situation?
In the population census of 1790 published in 1971, about 16 slaves were reported in Vermont. In 1860 the figure became 17. Observation of the census lists has shown that there have never been slaves in Vermont.
The original information concerning the census of 1800 does not exist. Information about each citizen participating in the censuses of 1810, 1830 and 1840, did not remain; only general information concerning small territories is accessible. The population following the results of the census of 1820 was 9 638 453 people, 1 538 022 of them were slaves. However, still there were no sugar plantations in the USA in 1820, and cotton ones were at the very beginning of development.

Here is apotheosis: here are census lists for 1850, 1860 and 1870. The quality of paper and printing are comparable, and ink equally is not faded, and even the figures are not changed - during the most dynamical period of 19 century.

In Russia the process of surnaming started after 1861, but even by 1895 75 % of the population had no surnames. In Europe we see active jugglings, but even Jews (not speaking about peasants) started to receive surnames only in 19 century.

In large quantities appropriated surnames (if they are not from nicknames) often bear recognized local character:
- There is toponymy and ethnotoponymy - Moskvin, Gruzinov, Volgin, Kalugin, Mordvinov, Khohlov...
- There is a local biosphere - Volkov, Komarov, Karpov, Schukin, Scheglov, Berezin, Dubinin...

And here in the USA I do not see such surnames, though it is considered that many people got there even before mass occurrence of surnames of 1850-1890. If surnames were given in the USA we should expect to see a great number of local surnames: Oregon, Montana, Bison, etc. Absence of such surnames proves extremely late, not earlier than the mass surnaming period in Europe, character of immigration in the USA.

From 1881 to 1901, the municipal data show 397083 people who left Holland, and the port data - only 78858, - the difference is fivefold. Here we have concealment of traffic volume for the purpose of taxes cheating.

Such details always should be taken into consideration.

Prepotent paradigms about the order of America exploration, purchasing and import of slaves and immigration of the European population as a whole are doubtful.

8. Antique slavery.

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