Monday, 21 October 2019

About debts writing off in the ancient time

Andrew Stepanenko

June 29, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna


Practice of debts writing off in the anniversary year has ancient roots. The word "anniversary" goes back to the bible term yovel, designating the fiftieth year when property debts were forgiven and debt slaves were released (Leviticus, 25:8-13). Similar traditions as C.Goodheart and M.Hudson mention in their article, existed in many Middle Eastern states - in Sumer, Assyria, Babylon. In agrarian societies, it was usual to take credits in the Temple (the Supreme religious organization) or from the governor, but in case of a poor harvest year, there was no possibility to pay them. In that case, the debtor either sold the property, or sold himself or a member of his family in slavery. However, those so-called agrarian debts - debts of households were forgiven in the anniversary year. Debts of merchants (investment), the result of commercial activity, were not written off.
Debts writing off occurred during the first millennium (BC).

According to Vladimir's Charter, the collection of the borrowed money interest was strongly limited. The term of interest collection was limited to three years.
(© Pasynkov Alexander Sergeevich. “Usury Phenomenon”, Пасынков Александр Сергеевич. «Феномен ростовщичества»)

Why it was only three years? My not proved hypothesis: every fourth year there was debts writing off.

In our world, it is possible to transfer or sell the land to other people. Nevertheless, every 7th or 49th year, and the 50th year debts are written off - everything comes back again. The obligation to remit a debt periodically led to that people evaded from landing money to those in need with the approach of the Saturday year and anniversary year.

In my work, there are four variants of chronology reducing, and two of them have powerful justifications:
1) Transfer from the octal Roman calendar to the denary one without special efforts and without conspirology attraction transforms 12 months of a year into 15 years (indictum)
2) A Bible year is a synodic month of 29.53 days.
It is not excluded that both schemes were used: the Roman one - for the Roman history, the Judaic one - for the Judaic history.

We transform the terms of bible persons’ life into synodic months:
Adam's son Seth lived 912 years (76 years)
Enos - 905 years (75 years)
Cainan - 910 (76 years)
Mahalaleel - 895 (74 years)
Jered - 962 (80 years)

If so, the anniversary year came not in 49-50 years, but in 49-50 synodic months, that is, it is equal to 4 years. And, the usurer should start to write off the debt 2 weeks prior to the 4th years term (in a full moon) and finish all calculations two weeks later the 4th years term (in a full moon).

Why it was a 4 year period - as in Russia?
My answer: Judea (as well as Khazaria, related to it), Rome Empire (as well as the Byzantine Empire, related to it) and Russia used similar variants of the political system analogous to the Olympic 4 year period.

(The more detailed hypothesis)

Each Rome consisted of a set of phratry-tribes standard for the union of tribes: 2, 4, 8, 12 and so on - more often it was 4 phratries with two leading ones. In the Byzantine Empire there were 4"circus" (that is, Olympic) political parties, leaders - Venets and Prasines. In Mexico, there were 4 of them, leaders – orders of the Jaguar and the Eagle.

A married couple usually comes to crisis, when the child is 3 years old. At this age, the baby is able to eat him/herself, go to sleep, and hide if necessary. It is a biological signal identifying that if the pair does not match, it is time to part.

Change of governing parantelas is closely connected with repartition of regal women: a situation when the winner takes the wife of the previous governor is typical in the history of ruling families. There are tens of examples, and a 4 year period (there is a variant of a 5 year period) is biologically convenient.

Change of governing parantela in a tribal society is necessity. There are a lot of ways to do it – stating from direct murder of all men of the senior parantela (there are some examples) finishing with sports games where the emperor who lost the game was sacrificed to gods. At first the sacrificing was natural (in archaic Rome and Aztecs’ Mexico), but then, probably, it became symbolical. I think, the emperor and all his parantela simply entered monasteries - after symbolical death for the world. They lived there not worse, than it was in liberty.

There are three examples: the Mexican stadiums, the Roman stadiums (hippodromes) and competitions of the Turkic people: bajga (horse racing), kokpar, kazakhsha kures, kush synasu (powerlifting), kyz kuu (catch up with the girl).

The Turkic competition had a better original sense: to catch up with the girl meant to have a claim on her and if this girl was a princess, the victory was of great importance.

Aztecs following the results of a ball game sometimes sacrificed all lost command. Here again let’s remember that in Europe the seigneur could propose for a duel his knight-vassal instead of himself. Here we have a method to keep the power, rather backward and doubtfully masculine.

Historians of 19 century prescribed to the stadium games rather dishonorable role. The parties fighting for power were contemptuously named as circus, and regal matrons who determined power delegation – as circus prostitutes. Nobody was going to explain to us how prostitutes - one following another - became empresses of The Byzantine Empire. Successors of the Byzantine Empire should believe that their regal foremothers were all dirty whores.

In practice, it was the trial by ordeal, which took place at stadiums.

In 1811 in France fights of two parties still passed in cities: the Black God and the White God (that ceremony was called "kazachi"). They fought fiercely, there were victims, but the aim was not murder, but certain not named symbolical act (I think, raising of the idol on the stipulated place). It granted the won party the right to administer the city all next year. So it was something of the kind of municipality elections.

Therefore, it was legally the trial by ordeal too.

Who knows what role fisticuffs played in the life of the Russian village? It is clear that later it became just daring display, but the background of the ceremony was definitely was of greater importance.

I managed to find one distinct explanation of the essence of the matter. The fight was between men who had not solved the conflict (in particular, for property) by some other way. Men always had that right. The situation of fights of the dead mister’s slaves was widespread, - the destiny of succession laws, in this case, the debt dared. I will remind that the slave in Rome kept legal capacity in full, and in civil sense was more equal to any free. And here in a disputable case the slave had the right to throw down a challenge. It is clear that wishing to change the destiny force always were.

Moreover, it was too - legally - the trial by ordeal.

We have a created picture, where in the past all were slaves from the top to the bottom – though particularly at stadiums all were men from the top to the bottom.

The main information for the Roman emperors was as follows: the power was given for a year. My interpretation: following the results of Olympic Games, four representatives of four phratries of new parantelas came to the power. They were formally equal between themselves, but there was a phratry-champion, and there were those who had come to the finish at Games later. In this order, they also should take the power: the champion - the first year, the silver prize-winner - the second year, etc.

In four years, the situation repeated, but that time the dominating parantela defended from claims of а younger parantela.

The sense of the victory at the Olympic Games was enormous. In the first year, all debts were forgiven, and that phratry that started to rule in the first year was in huge honor. By the fourth year problems accumulated, and the last emperor, first of all, got all those problems.

Merchant debts were liquid, therefore nobody wrote off anything to merchants - neither in Rome, nor in Judea, nor in Russia. Peasants’ debts were a more difficult case. If the village could not repay a debt three years running, that household was unprofitable. Sure, it was possible to take the village into bondage, but as a result, it was the same as to take on balance an unprofitable collective farm.

I will remind that all questions of the property repartition are solved in a tribal society through becoming related with each other. However, if you have become related with someone, you are responsible for this person, and according to the Customer Law, any of your new relatives can ask you to give them money, for example, to pay off the penalty for murder. Moreover, it is impossible to refuse. In addition, if the village starves, it is necessary to feed related people. To reconcile to losses and to write off a debt is much more reasonable.

When the Olympic Games passed, the power changed. The former emperor was from phratry № 4, and then - from phratry № 2. Moreover, a new parantela came to the power; it displaced the previous one by force (victory) and was unwilling to take obligations of that previous one. So, the main thing was that to bear responsibility for the affairs of a former the power cohort was legally impossible: phratry № 2 had no right to answer for obligations of phratry № 4.

Let’s see what Michael Hudson spoke. “Herodotos wrote about debts writing off in Babylonia. It was a solid tradition in the Near East that a new governor, acceding to the throne, cancelled farmers’ debts”.

The hypothesis has harmoniously grown together with the real historical texture.

If the debt was internal, the tribe-phratry borrowed crops in the central warehouse of the union of tribes, so the debt write-off was a normal part of their life: everyone could suffer from poor harvest. The Torah described exactly the same scheme; sure, for the period of indebtedness the tribe leaves got under external management of the Temple, it was both humane and reasonable. Historians named it slavery, but it was, more likely, like help of strong managers to weak managers.

Such internal debts are fixed in the Rus’ Justice.
The CITATION:... If the usurer lent 10 grivnas, one “third slice” was equal to 5 grivnas. Taking from the debtor “two slices” - 10 grivnas, the creditor had the right to collect and the basic amount of debt - 10 grivnas. Having collected from the debtor “three slices” (5+5+5), the usurer lost the right to collect the basic amount of debt. (© Пасынков Александр Сергеевич. «Феномен ростовщичества». Pasynkov Alexander Sergeevich. “Usury Phenomenon”)

In practice, here we have a liberty admitted by a historian Tikhomirov that the third slice was taken in 4 months’ time (the third of a year). Now the third slice is called as annual and if so, three third slices were exactly equal to the restriction imposed by Vladimir - only three years interest payments. That is, the usurer lent 100 %, and returned maximum 60 %. The solution is simple: in the Rus’ Justice the mechanism of intertribal mutual aid is described, instead of the modern credit. It was necessary to take interest payments, to keep the debtor in tonus, but nobody would bleed him white. Because he was the related person. He would pay off with other currency - with his fidelity.

The second variant of indebtedness was external when the union of tribes borrowed money from other breeding union. That variant of indebtedness went according to the merchant scheme, and it would hardly be written off. However, it is clear that usurers were not involved in that process; it was foreign policy - sometimes successful, sometimes not.

So, it was hardly possible to enslave the peasantry. A solid village would pay off, and nobody would take a weak one on balance. Capitalists (so named bankers and usurers) in the middle of 19 century declared: “the earth as pledge is not suitable; for us, the earth is illiquid”.

Worse than that, until 1848-1853 patrimony (and it was 99 % of real estate property) was inalienable. Legal rates for alienation had not been developed yet. Therefore neither the lands and nor peasants were sold, but the feudal rights of landowners to the lands and peasants appeared at the market. In particular, the right to collect the tithe (speaking about Europe), so that right was already liquid.

Therefore when, quoting Lozinsky, I say that Churches had the third of Europe population was in slavery, it is inexact. Sure, peasants were not free, but the Church gave loans not to peasants, but to their landowners, and demanded interest payment not from peasants, but from their landowners, and - accordingly - whom did it enslave? Those who were released by Catherine II synchronously with secularization of the church property – the noblemen.

The Georgian historians exactly wrote: in 1833 our noblemen were released from serfdom. The Danish historians exactly wrote: until 1850s, our noblemen were obliged to the seigneurs with the corvee - that is, personal labor for the seigneur: to hand him socks in the morning, to wash his ass, to bring a horse.

Nevertheless, the reform of civil legal rights took place with Christianity introduction.
The ancient Roman concept "libertine" totally disappeared; the enslaving with the Church appearance became eternal. To capture the third of that time world resources was the fact that neither Jewish, nor pagan usurers had never dreamed about.

The revolution reason could be only one, and it was complex: cancellation of the power rotation at the Olympic Games, and accordingly, establishment of irremovability and continuity of power when there was no sense to write off debts. With disappearance of regular change of the tribal elite, the legal impossibility to continue to charge interest for the debt vanished as well .

St. George’s day was waited for, as it was godsend. St. George’s day is an exact analogue of the Jewish Anniversary Year and the Roman Saturnalia when with coming to the supreme power of a new parantela, all old debts were written off. Moreover, it was clear that a new boss came to each village - one of younger relatives of the new emperor.

Cancellation of St. George’s day was a consequence of the monarchy birth as a management principle. The power rotation stopped; there appeared a possibility for unlimited interest charge for the debt, which was previously restricted to 4-7 years, which meant termless servitude.

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