Saturday, 17 August 2019

Parantelas and Phratries

Andrew Stepanenko
May 30, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna

Let's consider the common features of the society in the past.

Parantela is a group of blood relatives united by the general ancestors. Children of one mother, despite of the age difference, are equal among themselves, already because are all equally subordinated to their mother. It is the first parantela, and its members remain legally equal, when they grow up.
The children of the first parantela are the second parantela. The members of the second parantela are equal, and in relation to the first one, they occupy the subordinated position. Further, there are great-grandsons of the common original mother - the third parantela, further great-great-grandsons - the fourth one … and so it goes on approximately to the sixth-seventh.
As women give birth until their old age, every parantela finally collects all age categories - from old men to babies. They are not equal in the division of labour, but they are all subordinated to the senior parantela in their rights level. The same situation is in the modern legislation: in the inheritance question, senior parantelas have considerable advantage before the younger ones. Inside one parantela all inheritance shares are identical.
The right to a certain share in the inheritance for the parantela members directly means the right to the further management of this property share. That is, even now the position of the person in the generation hierarchy predetermines his/her property rights. It is direct inheritance of the tribal way of life norms, and there were no other sources of the property rights accepting in the tribe.

For the lack of contraceptives, the members of younger parantelas are more numerous than the members of the senior one; that is why all usual workload is mainly shouldered by the youngers. Senior parantelas owing to the existing predominating (parental) position are engaged in the account, control and general management work. The top position is occupied with alive progenitors, often idolised: so it was in Ancient Rome, as well as in China: in the beginning of 20 century, Empress Dowager Cixi had a title of the divine ancestor, and it seemed to please her a lot.

When a senior Parantela is mostly dead, its dominating role is occupied with the following one. At the moment of the power shift each Parantela moves a rank higher, receives the following, more prestigious rank of duties, and each of them understands that once they will reach to the very top. The risks of mutiny against seniors parantelas are regarded by bottoms as excessive; to wait for their hour seems more reliable.
For such order of management even full destruction of leaders is not dangerous to a tribe, - hierarchical relations penetrate through the society as mycelium through the soil, and the tribe does not split and quickly fills in all free vacancies.
Sometimes the leaving of the last alive representatives of the most senior parantela is hastened. The relic remainder of it is perhaps suffocation of lived to a great age old men by a pillow under their "voluntary" consent. Some evidences show that the governor leaving his post in archaic Rome used to be sacrificed to the gods.

The exact analogue of division into parantelas has organically developed in the Soviet Army. Any greenhorn knew that the type of work and number of privileges would change for the better every half a year, and, having passed all steps, he would become the old-timer and his sphere would be general management. This system is somehow extremely fair: everyone bears burdens and enjoys all pleasures of all social ranks, and, in identical time limits. It is primitive communism. Destroying levelling is absent, and equal shares of work and compensation are the result.

More remote analogue of parantela division is fixed in Japan: corporations guaranteed to the workers continuous career growth in a certain time slot. We do not know, how long this system was held on, but its roots definitely are in historically recent tribal structure of Japan.

In the Soviet Army, the ceremony was clear. On the Day of the Order each call-up rose a rank higher, but at first everyone should get as much blows with a metal plate (the variants: a canteen scoop or a stool) on the buttocks, as many months it is left to serve. During the procedure it was required to keep silence, otherwise the magic act of rank shift was not counted. Accent on buttocks was an obvious homage sign.

The same procedure must have happened in the past. A good analogue of "the scoop" status shift with the hit by a scoop on buttocks was the hit by a sword on a shoulder in the knighting procedure. However, the best analogue of “the Day of the Order» we consider the Olympic Games, ideal just at the stage of power shift. The argument is as follows: the competition of governors of the period of archaic Rome in running. The young applicant usually won and publicly sacrificed the previous ruler. And each parantela solemnly moved up to the following rank. Sacrificing of losers following the results of competition at the stadium was also typical for the Aztecs.

The NOTE: Wikipedia lists a number of bullying examples, since 16 century (the Eton College), it connects it with primacies’ biological hierarchy, and however it does not see any connection with the homage and initiation rituals during the period of feudalism, antiquity and in tribal communities.

The encyclopedic meaning of the term “phratry” is rather doubtful as it means male "brotherhood", and it also concerns groups including female “sisterhood”. We will not change the meaning here, but use the shortened version: phratry it is a related group which members are connected with marriage relations with the other phratry of the tribe.

Unlike parantelas, phratry is a vertical structure. A tribe is like a chessboard: from the top to the bottom, the tribe is penetrated with phratries, passing through all horizontal parantelas. Each cell of such society can be even given the individual address, for example, “phratry 2; parantela 3”.

The number of phratries in a tribe is usually even, as marriage is a policy, and it is concluded between friendly phratries in crisscross manner: women from one phratry marry men from the other and vice versa.

Phratries as tribe cells, are totally equal, however the larger ones play a more important role. Therefore successfully giving birth women are worshiped.

Pairs of phratries compete for the position in the society, and soon there are only two strongest ones on the top. At the time of Hernan Cortes, the Aztecs had orders of the Eagle and the Jaguar, and in Byzantium during Heraclius’s reign, there were “circus parties” of the Venetoi and Prasinoi.

Exact modern analogue of phratries are associations in the Soviet Army. Some associations were definitely friendly to one another, strong unions appeared, and those unions competed for influence, simultaneously keeping fidelity to their call-up which can be seen as exact analogues tribal parantelas. Obviously, any associations operate according to the same principles.

It is very probable that taboos on relations with sisters, aunts and nieces appeared thanks to the developed contractual relations between phratries. The teenager reasonably did not encroach on those who under the contract belonged to friendly phratries, - it is extremely dangerous to break such men's contracts. And when he was given to a man order, it was already impossible to break those taboos.

Engels wrote a lot about “a group marriage”, when all women and men of a tribe were wives and husbands to each other, but this simplification is too shortened. In practice, it is a joint liability of all men and women before each other: a bachelor will not remain without supper, and a widow with her children - without a share in prey. Adultery and group sex undermine stability of relations. That is why they are not encouraged - even in the most wild tribes of Amazon.

If there is surplus of foodstuff in the region for a long time, and a man can support more than one family, they get rid of boys, and polygamy appears. If there is persistent severe hunger in the region, they get rid of girls (India, China, Tibet), and polyandry comes (the scheme is “many supporters, one lying-in woman”) as it happens in Tibet today.

The marriages are inside the parantela. If to admit marriage of a guy from parantela № 4 with a princess from parantela № 1, it will shift all guy’s relatives 3 levels higher: the family of the groom will rise level from parantela 5 to parantela 2 of the bride’s family, parantela 6 will become parantela 3, and parantela 7 – will be parantela 4. Nobody was eager to get such a shock, and it was even not fair. Exceptions, probably, happened, but these were just rare exceptions. Dislike for unequal marriage in 19 century and in earlier times may be regarded as a relic custom of this tribal organization of society.

If the family has week reputation, its guys will receive marriage offers only from elderly widows that will decrease the number of their descendants and in the long term will considerably weaken their family. Ethnographers observe this practice in Amazonia nowadays.

Research has shown that closely related marriages raise disease rate by 2-3 %. Comparing it with the general children disease rate is insignificant even now, that is, the reason for taboo on cousin marriages is different. In practice, far family marriages make a tribe stronger. Cousin marriage, in the opinion of a tribe, is a greedy and socially dangerous attempt of a family self-isolation from the society. However, in seniors parantelas, due to a small number of people of age of consent, it is more difficult to avoid cousin marriages, and such marriages are normal at the power top.

I will remind that the term "matriarchal" means maternal by origin, and, in practice; first of all, it concerns the account of relationship and inheritance shift.
The right of the groom selection is the right of the female community, and the final word - belongs to the bride. The husband comes to the house of the wife, and nothing belongs to him there, even his children. However, he is not lonely: the phratry is fool of his male relatives on the mother’s side who have married earlier.
It is necessary to remind here that shift to the other family was a taboo; nobody could leave it otherwise as via exile or funeral. Therefore, reaching adulthood, each boy passed some kind of initiation connected with psychedelics intake and physical tortures. So, if to be exact, it was his symbolical death. Once again: the rites of adulthood passage is considered by ethnographers as liminal, that is, it is connected with the world of the mortal. For this reason, the groom in Russia was called a wolf or a bear - a totem animal from the world of ancestors.
Formally, already dead young man came to an order consisting of his matrilinear relatives, who passed all that procedure earlier. They gave him a new name and eventually select him a wife in coordination with the female half of a new huge family.
Men within their phratries possess their own fixed capital: cattle, weapon, boats, but, unlike women they cannot give this fixed capital to the children as heritage - only to their nephews on the mother’s side. And it is not inheritance in the full sense of the word: the uncle has not given birth to his nephew, and after both of them leave their family, his nephew is not a member of his family any more. Somehow such strange patterns of ownership as collective property of a monastic or knight order were developed.
As husbands and wives of one phratry are not relatives to each other, they have different ancestors, different gods and different (operating in Africa nowadays) “secret societies”, in particular, the female ones. The power verticals are accordingly divided and connected in one place - in a married couple of the phratry’s heads, in the uppermost parantela. It is a direct analogue of the future monarchical family.

Concentration of the power and resources of the elite is inevitable because of some reasons. For example, top parantela has the parental natural right to give gifts to thier children. Men accept gifts from men, the woman - from women. Thus, the uppermost parantela has nobody higher them, and is not obliged to report for the lower one (their children). There appears an uncontrolled tribal elite, and this elite has free legal resources. It is necessary to underline that here we have the first systematic alienation of products of work - centuries before it was noticed by Marx.
These gifts are seldom mentioned, however in 19-20 centuries Empress Cixi accepted gifts, for example, 4 bags of pearls. Moreover, when it was time to pay the contribution following the results of the war, all payments to the foreign states passed in accounting papers as gifts. This is a clear relict custom of the tribal society arrangement where concepts "contribution" and "taxes" did not exist yet.
In the uppermost parantela sometimes included all phratries of the tribe. In Ancient Rome, all four phratries were presented judging by annual change of consuls. The hypothesis is the following: the outcome of the Olympic Games predetermined the sequence of government: the representative of the champion phratry was the first to accepted consulate, and the one who came the last - the fourth by turn.
Nevertheless, such, fair, the system of the power shift did not always develop. Descendants of those rare women, who could give birth until their elderly age, would get in top parantela as rather young people, would live longer than others, and would rule the tribe for a long time without taking into consideration others phratries. For generations there would be one or two families on the top and these families would govern without any shift. It seems that the Aztecs had only two orders from four on the top - the Eagle and the Jaguar, and only two fractions from four remained in Byzantium – the Blues and the Greens.
Top parantela is more inclined to cousin marriages as the source of concentration of the power and resources. The main point: the top parantela regulates tribe external relations, that is, trade. As the elite cannot be controlled by their children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, external exchange operations of the tribe give great opportunities for explosive concentration of the power.
It is necessary to underline that all described mechanisms have natural character. Yes, usurpation of the power and resources, alienation, absence of control is available, but within the tribal legal field each norm is extremely organic. Every norm was put considering the maximum coordination of all actions; so all these norms have worked, simply the coordination is reached in favour of strong and successful members at the expense of all the others. And it is not necessary to break any norm for this natural outcome.

Phratries are equal among themselves, that is why their relations are horizontal, equal in rights and comprise a network of contracts. Parantelas are unequal, as the eldest Parantela is always parental, here again there is a taboo variety: the daughter can sue neither her mother, nor her sister, nor the sister of her sister - people will not understand it and will not accept such actions. Men of the order are in the same position: everyone has passed homage and has sworn to fidelity to the elder parantelas. We will remember the Knights Templars case of Brother Pavel and Brother Stephen. Much later, the inquisitors would recognize Stephen’s right to resistance to the rigid form of homage, and the order punished him that time.
Every parantela has a court, and seniors usually do not interfere with its decisions. Here are roots of that idea that all are equal in the court. In practice, when there was a situation, unsoluble inside the parantela, the case was tried in the patrimonial court – the court of the eldest parantela which survived in Europe till the "Spring of the people" in 1848.

Friday, 16 August 2019

Matriarchy: from Vatican to Mecca

Andrew Stepanenko
July 04, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna

Most legends about matriarchy are fantastic. One chronicler argued that amazons cauterized their left breast; the other one noticed that they killed men, and all of them were sure in one fact - that matriarchy means the reign of women. In practice, matriarchy is based on two principles:

1. The man and only the man rules.
2. The relationship is considered on the mother's side.

This is the basic concept.

(Sources: vsegda_tvoj; urs_sonam)

The Akan are the most part of the population of the Republics of Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. In their families, everything, including surnames and property, is inherited on the mother’s side. Governing positions traditionally belong to men, but the right to them is given through their female relatives - mothers, sisters and daughters.

The Minangkabau populate the Western Sumatra and number about 4 million people. Mother is the head of the family. All family property is given from the mother to her daughter. The family is always headed by a man, but if he is unable to cope with his duties, women displace him and choose another one on its place. At political and religious institutes are mostly governed by men.

The Garo are one of the main ethnoses of the Indian state of Meghalaya. The head of the family is a woman, this "post" is by the inherited right is given to the youngest daughter, as well as the main part of the family property. Elder sisters remain without their dowry and arrange their life themselves. The man disagrees to marry until his future wife agrees to obey to him. Official organizations are operated by men, they control the large property.

The Мосо are the people living on the territory of the Chinese provinces Yunnan and Sichuan.
The lineage is kept through the female line, family traditions are given from the senior women to younger ones, and the property is inherited in the same way. Children receive the mother’s surname. The institute of marriage is absent. Women are free in their choice of partners and do not live with them under one roof. Instead of bringing-up their own offspring, the man are engaged in upbringing of the children belonging to their mothers’ families. Policy is mostly men’s occupation.

Combining the data of the past, it is rather simple to make the list of the basically principles of matriarchy.

1. As the relationship is kept through the female line, the husband and the wife are not blood relatives
2. As the husband and the wife are not blood relatives, they are not inheritors to one another
3. For the woman her children are inheritors, and the same do for the man his brothers and sisters and children of his sisters
4. For the child the closest relative-man is the uterine brother of his mother
5. The property of husbands and wives is divided and is mutually tabooed, no one can encroach on it
6. The real estate, as a rule, is fixed to the woman: the house, the earth
7. Therefore, mothers have some inherited property for their daughters, and there is nothing left to their sons
8. The personal estate, as a rule, is fixed to the man: cattle, a cart, a boat
9. Therefore, the uncles have some inherited property for their nephews and there is nothing left to their nieces
10. As a rule, the last-born child in family becomes the inheritor
11. The senior children remain without the inheritance (dowry) and arrange their life themselves
12. Pay attention that in fairy tales big brothers (or sisters) usually hate the last-born child
13. The marriage union is sometimes fixed by some reciprocal voice: with divorce, the guilty side loses it
14. The husband runs the property of his wife, for example, ploughs her earth, but does not own it
15. it is not the wife moves to the house of her husband, but the husband - to the house of his wife, the family is located matrilocal
16. The house is run by the senior woman, therefore the main problem for the son-in-law is his mother-in-law
17. The husband comes to the earth of his wife with his cattle, and with it he leaves in case of divorce
18. If the woman is a princess, the marriage means the right to govern her people
19. A knight in fairy tales receives after his marriage the princess her half-kingdom under the law
20. The king in the past often ruled as a regent with his child
21. When the princess marries, her father usually leaves his position in favor of his son-in-law
22. In some occasions, the prince, the blood relative of the mother, becomes the king

Some features from the listed above are actual even now, even in the most developed countries of Europe. Below are some clear historical examples.

Moctezuma (Motecuhzoma II), the most known ruler of the Aztecs, accepted his throne not from his father, but from hs uncle Ahuitzotl. And, if to be clear with details, the following becomes obvious:
- Motecuhzoma II accepted the power not exactly from his uncle, but from his widow;
- Motecuhzoma II accepted the power only because managed to marry the daughter of his uncle’s widow;
- Motecuhzoma II was the brother and the nephew of his uncle’s widow, so here we see again - the female line!

When Motecuhzoma died, no one of his numerous sons pretended to the throne. The power shifted only with his daughters, as a dowry. And the supreme power was fixed to his daughter Tekuichpo .So again we see that the blood of Motecuhzoma had no importance; what was important was the fact that Tekuichpo was the daughter his most highborn wife, and moving upwards the lineage makes it clear that she was distant great-granddaughter of Ilancueitl, the foundress of the dynasty. For this reason, the following rulers were Cuitláhuac and Cuauhtémoc who married her in turn. Then this woman became the wife of smart Hernan Cortes, and his son from Tekuichpo, who was Motecuhzoma too, was the Aztec lord and the viceroy of Spain*. He signed orders, which were legal in Mexico and California. Hernan indeed became Regent with his son.

* in official history of Spain the viceroy Motecuhzoma is not mentioned, but there is some information about him in some unedited Spanish evidences

The christened Indian, Hernan Cortes’s interpreter and companion was not lucky with posthumous glory. The Spaniards, who thanks to Marina got the power over all Mexico, carefully avoided the description of the true role of this unusual "interpreter".

Bernal Dias called her "the most magnificent" woman.
Gomara named her as "girl-slave" or “our Indian interpreter”.
Cortes himself mentioned her as “the woman-interpreter, local Indian” in his second letter to Charles V.
On one hand, she was also considered as a slave for sexual pleasure of Aztec rulers, as if she was a thing presented to Cortes. And on the other – his lover, spy and adviser for Indian psychology. And even La Chingada - the greatest whore who had sold her people to Spaniards. All these colorful epithets are concealment devices of the essence of the matter.
Cortes surely had two interpreters besides Marina. Cortes had enough slaves, whores and even psychology advisers. But he could approach to the power only with the help of Marina. To begin with that Malinalli (so was her called actually) was the daughter of the captured and sacrificed main rival of Motecuhzoma II in fight for power. Moreover, in the family hierarchy Malinalli was higher than the spouse of Motecuhzoma II. Therefore, when Cortes (according to the advice of Motecuhzoma’s enemies) married her, he got the title of Malinche – which means “Malinalli’s husband” - and together with the title, he got enormous dynastic rights.
Thanks to this marriage Cortes also got total control of Mexico - from the Indians’ point of view it was absolutely legal. So princess Malinalli was neither the whore, nor the traitress, nor an ordinary interpreter, of course. Even if she would be silent as fish, all doors would open before them. Malinalli was embodied nobility herself. There was nothing more to expect from her.
Cortes, who was a notary, that is, a lawyer, immediately perceived the advantages and … historians somehow do not attract attention to that fact, but Cortes's all actions in Mexico were reduced to seizure of noble women and children. He took women in his dynastic harem, and used children as an alive board. By the way, it saved his life when he escaped from Tenochtitlan.
In the long term, Malinalli’s son from Cortes, Don Martin Cortes, would have among Aztecs the same rights, as other princes, and he would receive the status of the viceroy from the Spanish crown. But Don Martin was not lucky; the council of tribe chiefs conducted a ceremony of expulsion of his mother from the family, and Cortes gave the former queen to one of the officers, who adopted unaccomplished viceroy.
Cortes made some more attempts: has adopted one of Motecuhzoma’s daughters, got children from his other daughter, and after capital assault, captured and married the most noble princess - Tekuichpo. And Mexico obeyed - not to Cortes, but to Tekuichpo’s son from Cortes - next Motecuhzoma.

It is not a secret that before the European invasion the power in India was given on the mother’s side. Europeans successfully used the Indian mother right, - as soon as certain "pirate" John Every* had stolen the Great Mogul harem.

* "Every" (sometimes written as "Avery") - a pseudonym the Odysseus "Anybody" type; so “Every” means "Everyone". It is quite an unusual pseudonym for a pirate; they used to have more simple nicknames. Every’s flag was also unordinary: four gold chevrons on the red field. And if red color symbolizes courage and so it is quite suitable, four gold chevrons are nonsense for a pirate. Gold symbolizes the power and nobility, and chevrons reflect hierarchy among naval officers.

Several separately employed by him in America piracy ships caught Mogul’s fleet at the coast of Arabia, captured the vessel with his harem then Every married the Great Mogul Aurangzeb’s main relative and declared (according to one of versions) the beginning of a new dynasty in India.

Clearly that the Mogul got furious and started to close trading stations and to throw Englishmen into prisons so the British parliament had to pretend that all were awfully upset by the piracy evidence, and to send a well-known “ruthless pirate” William Kidd into a pursuit of the thief of the harem. Everything shows it was a setup: an elderly businessman William Kidd owning several ships wanted just to live a quiet life occupying his elective post; but he got caught on a bribe, and the authorities forced him under the threat of judicial punishment to take a role of a pirate hunter, more precisely, one pirate hunter - Every.

Kidd started up into a pursuit, moved round Africa, visited some piracy moorages and when he returned with those data that he had collected about Every, he was immediately sent to London for interrogation in the Parliament. Thus, Tori party members immediately tried to use Kidd for discredit (!) of Wig-lords. Moreover, Kidd was forced to call someone's names! He knew what he was involved in, and trying to save life, did not give any name and only wrote a letter to King Wilhelm. As a result, the papers did not appear at trial at all, and he was sentenced to the death for the murder of the officer who had arose revolt on the ship (but not for the piracy). The owner of four gold chevrons on the banner and one-time pseudonym "Every" - together with the harem - remained off-camera forever.

It seems that so in 1707 in India there appeared a new Mogul whose name was Bahadur Shah – according to this context, he was juvenile son of Aurangzeb’s relative captured in the sea and "pirate Every" who remained off-camera. There is one rather symptomatic coincidence that the British East Indian Company in India was named "Bahadur’s Company", and this Bahadur’s Company had the right to collect tax from the population. In the author’s opinion, there was only one real way to pull out such powers from hands of Great Mogul’s collectors - to become the Great Mogul himself (or his regent). It seems that "Every" became such regent for Bahadur, - as Cortes became a regent for Tekuichpo’s son.

In 1712 when the son of the stolen princess and "pirate Every" was 16 (for that time, he was considered as an adult person for 2 years), Bahadur died. However he left 4 sons (probably, from different noble mothers), and the fight for power began between clans as a result. This war was inevitable and consequent because of that in matriarchal India did not include any primogeniture and the true lord of the stolen harem - secret "Every" - could find for 14-15-yearold Bahadur such marriage parties which obviously lead to war.

The fact of normal maternal right in Byzantium is proved by almost all facts. Here is the main evidence: custom to geld noble princes. At those times, chroniclers named it differently: “to cut off a nose”, for example, but after digging up other sources the nose turns into other part of the body. We will try to explain the reasons for that.
As family and tribe traditions approve relationship on the mother's side, the best way to come to the power was to marry a noble woman. The country was actually her this dowry. And the best way to keep the power was to make her a child. After that the wife could be banished into a monastery or one could help her to die because of puerperal fever, and her husband as the father of the baby could easily become a regent with the royal (on the mother’s side) child till his/her adulthood. However if the prince-baby was a castrate he was nobody. And his regent was nobody too. Therefore, all revolutions began with seizure of noble women and castrations of their sons.
So, for example, in the beginning of VII century two Heraclii, the father and the son, started revolt in Byzantium. They began it with taking the usurper Phocas’s family away consisting of three royal women. By the way, these women were really precious for Phocas, when the revolt began, he immediately hid them in the monastery Nea Metanoia. But the merchant corporation of Prasinoi pulled out tsarinas from the monastery and passed them to the Heraclii. It also became the main condition of recognition of Heraclii’s legitimate power. The situation is absolutale the same as with Cortes and Malinalli.
Tsarinas belonged to three generations: the grandmother (Epiphania), the mother (Fabia) and the daughter (Fabia too). The grandmother became the wife of Heraclius the Elder, and - attention! - there and then she became his son’s foster mother. Form that date the chroniclers started writing: “Epiphania – the mother of Emperor Heraclius”.
Heraclius the Younger married the younger women, and in May 612 one of them (by then christened as Eudoxia) gave birth to Heraclius’s son, and three months later when the kid got stronger, she died because she became absolutely useless. It is necessary to emphasize here that the tsarina’s death was a correct political action. She, being alive, was dangerous, as she could give birth to a prince from someone else. And Heraclius was the only one who had the right to this baby. As a regent he ruled those who obeyed the family of the baby’s mother.

The NOTE: there are no data on the boys born by three tsarinas before the revolt. Probably, they were gelded during the revolution. Sons of Emperor Heraclius were gelded during the following revolution (soon after his death).

The NOTE 2: John of Nikiû stated the story a bit different. Three royal women belonged to the family of Justinian - one of the previous emperors. Therefore, the marriage with one of them meant for Heraclii’s clan building relation with Justinian’s family. Probably, therefore the soldier's emperor Phocas who first captured the family and had a plan to marry one of the women, after consultations of priestly and judicial officials, refused his idea and resignedly gave all three women to the son of the eldest matron.

In encyclopedias this phenomenon reveals as so: nepotism (from an Lat. nepos, gen. case nepotis - grandson, nephew) - distribution by the Popes of the highest church positions or lands to the closest relatives. It was well spread in XV-XVI centuries. In a more comprehensive sense (modern meaning), it means favoritism.
This definition contradicts the facts and documents, because in XI century (but not in XV) Peter's throne passed to the nephew of the previous Pope. And since then it was a non-stop process - up to the beginning of XIX century. Here is the list of those Popes who were appointed by the church directly in the result of nepotism. They are 12.

Benedict IX. 1032-1044. Theophylactus, Count of Tusculum, Benedict VIII and John XIX's nephew.
Innocent III. 1198 1216. Lotario de' Conti, Count of Segni. Clement III’s nephew.
Celestine IV. 1241. Goffredo da Castiglione, Urban III’s nephew.
Alexander IV. 1254-1261. Rinaldo de' Conti, Count of Segni. Gregory IX's nephew.
Adrian V. 1276. Ottobuono de' Fieschi, Count of Lavagna. Innocent IV’s nephew.
Honorius IV. 1285-1287. Giacomo Savelli. Honorius III’s grandnephew.
Gregory XI. 1370-1378. Pierre Roger de Beaufort. Clement VI’s nephew.
Eugene IV. 1431-1447. Gabriele Condulmer. Gregory XII’s nephew.
Paul II. 1464-1471. Pietro Barbo. Eugene IV’s nephew.
Alexander VI. 1492-1503. Rodrigo de Borgia. Callixtus III’s nephew.
Pius III. 1503. Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini. Pius II’s nephew.
Leo XI. 1605. Alessandro de' Medici. Leo X’s nephew.

The complete list is much larger. We managed to find 64 Fathers (from 535 till 1799), who got their positions due to family relations, but that fact was not emphasized. And the point is not that they are someone's relatives; the matter is that the Holy Sees were inherited strictly on the mother’s side. The father delegated the power to the nephew, the son of the sister on mother. Here we see normal maternal right, as in case with Greeks, Aztecs and Moguls. This maternal right was recognised in Rome by everyone, as papal destiny was lifelong, and the nephew of the dead (and consequently already powerless) Pope could ascend the same throne only if his right was recognized by all members of the Curia.
It lasted up to Napoleon Bonaparte's intervention.

The same scheme existed in the East Assyrian Church (we have not found the data on throne transfer in other Eastern Churches). The patriarchate was given only from the uncle to the nephew, without consideration of the candidate’s age, experience or, say, personal qualities. Mar Simon, for example (who decided to join the Gregorian calendar in 1964), became the patriarch when he was 12.

In July, 1796 Vsevolod Alekseevich Vsevolozhsky, being childless, bequeathed all his fortune to his nephew Vsevolod Andreevich Vsevolozhsky who, after death of his uncle on October, 6th, 1796, became the owner of all inheritance of Vsevolod Alekseevich.
In history, the number of cases when the nephew inherited from his uncle, instead of his father, is critically great and is usually explained with childlessness. However, considering that the Vsevolozhskys belong to the Rurik family, it is impossible to exclude the fact that Vsevolod Alekseevich was a castrate – as the last castrates in Europe lived up to 1860.

The maternal right also results in the so-called “pornocracy”, the huge power of women over Popes. Here is a short list of the Popes openly depending on their “female popes” (in practice, all of them depended on their sisters, aunts or mothers).

Lando. 913-914. He was put on the papal throne by Theodora the Elder.
John X. 914-928. He was put on the papal throne by Theodora the Elder.
Leo VI. 928. He was put on the papal throne by Marozia.
Stephen VII (VIII), 928-931. He was put on the papal throne by Marozia.
John XI. 931-936. Marozia and Pope Sergius III’s son.
Innocent X. 1644-1655. Ruled the Church together with his sister Olimpia Maidalchini.

Such situation could not be in the society based on the paternal right principles. Any "family tyranny" would mean near the Pope neither his sister or mother, but his father or elder brother. It turns out that churches lived and delegated the power by the maternal right long enough – up to XIX (the Roman Catholics), and even till the end of XX (the Assyrian) centuries.

The NOTE: Repeatedly described ceremony of palpation check of the future Pope having male testes could occur only due to historical memory of Popes- castrates and later ban of tradition to appoint female Popes. The support to this thesis is the case with as though mythological Pope Joan who pretended to be a man.
In our opinion, John could give herself out to be not a man but a castrate. Yes, and celibacy in the Catholic church could be legalized as the sign of the castrates’ caste lobby. Moreover, castrates, as well as harems were a relict residual of the matriarchal way of the power concentration. We will shown now, why.

The Prophet Muhammad had 12 wives.

Name and age at marriage, Muhammad’s age, years of marriage, number of children
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, 40 years old, Muhammad was 25 years old, 25 years of marriage, 7 or 8 children
Sawda bint Zamʿa, from 55 till 65 years old, Muhammad was 50 years old
Aisha Banu Taim, from 6 till 20 years old, Muhammad was 53 years old, 50 years of marriage
Hafsa bint Umar, 20 years old, Muhammad was 54 years old, 8 years of marriage
Zaynab bint Khuzayma Banu Hilal, 3-8 months of marriage, died
Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya Banu Makhzum, 29 years old, Muhammad was 55 years old, 7 years of marriage
Zaynab bint Jahsh Banu Asad, 35 years old, Muhammad was 56-58 years old, 4-6 years of marriage
Juwayriyya bint al-Harith, 20 years old, Muhammad was 57 years old, 5 years of marriage
Ramlah binte Abi-Sufyan Umm Habibah, from 24 till 34 years old, Muhammad was 59-61 years old, 1-3 years of marriage
Safiyya bint Huyayy Banu Nadir, 17 years old, Muhammad was 61 years old, 3-5 years of marriage
Maymuna bint al-Harith Banu Hashim (Sahaba), 36 years old, Muhammad was 60 years old, 3 years of marriage
Maria al-Qibtiyya, 20 years old, Muhammad was 58 years old, 4 years of marriage, gave birth to the son Ibrahim

Khadijah seven children had with Muhammad. Their names were al-Kasim, at-Tahir, at-Tajjib, Zajnab, Rukajja, Umm Kulsum and Fatima (according to the Sunnite, there was also the eighth child - son Abdulla). All boys (and only boys) died in the early childhood. All girls lived till the beginning of the prophetical mission, took Islam, moved from Mecca to Medina and died before Muhammad’s death. Фатима died six months later after the death of her father.
The Christian Maria of Greek-Egyptian origin had from Muhammad one son Ibrahim. He, as well as other boys, died in infancy. By tacit agreement, it is supposed that Muhammad had no more children from other ten wives.
And what did actually happen?

Sawda married the Prophet in her ripe old age, and, perhaps, she must be excluded from the number of potential women in childbirth. However, elementary calculation shows that other nine wives of the Prophet could easily give birth from 15 to 25 children during their marriage period. Moreover, some wives had an honorary title meaning the child birth, for example, Umm Salama and Umm Habibah.
Indeed, for the most Muhammad’s wives he was not the first husband, that is, they could receive the title before marriage with the Prophet. But Aisha who married as an absolutely young girl could give birth to a child only in marriage with the Prophet, and Muhammad named her Umm Abdallah, that is literally translated as Abdallaha’s Mother and means that Aisha gave birth of the son to her husband. However, no data on this Muhammad’s son are found, as though Aisha gave birth to nobody. However, even if we not consider all five listed above women, there are seven more. After all, were they all sterile? Muhammad was definitely not sterile. Seven (according to the Sunnite - eight) children with Khadijah and one with Maria (one of the last wives) clearly prove the Prophet’s virile well-being. However, children are absent.
Let's ask themselves a question - why data on children of Muhammad from Khadijah, Maria and - presumably from Aisha were preserved. The answer is simple: in all three cases it was impossible to vanish the data on children. Ibrahim was a noble Egyptian Copt on the mother's side so, he was repeatedly mentioned in the Coptic annals. Aisha also had “information background” - in the person of Negus Ethiopian chromatists, and children from Khadijah were born, when their father had not become the conventional leader yet, and there were a lot of household data left about them, so it was impossible to vanish them to the end.
There are absolutely no data on those children of the Prophet who were absolute Arabians and Moslems, that is, they had no annalistic history abroad and, in fact, could apply for natural inheritance of their father’s deed. Well, winners write the history, and children of the Prophet, as the results show, have lost.
The winner in this fight is Ali’s family – Fatima’s husband, who suddenly died after her father’s death. Here we have a classical matriarchal model of coming to the power: marriage with a noble woman, a birth of her children (girls are more desirable) and her death when she is not needed anymore. The widower becomes the regent with his children and the only lord over their tribes.
The question, why girls are more desirable as children, is natural. The answer is easy: the regent can give his daughter to the relative under his control and continue his ruling for two more decades, but he should give his power his son. Muhammad also tried to stop this out-of-date practice and … won everywhere, except his own family.

The NOTE: It is strange, but among children of Ali and Fatima we can see Zajnab and Umm-Kulsum in succession, that is, Ali’s children are namesakes of the 4th and 6th children of Muhammad. In my opinion, Ali could easily adopt the Prophet’s daughters. It would give him paternal power over them - with all legal consequences.

And here are three citations from the article of a historian Alexander Victorovich Koptev “The Legal mechanism of the imperial power transfer in archaic Rome and sacral functions the celer tribune”.

According to the tradition the Roman emperors acted as a husband of the daughter of his predecessor (Numa - the husband of Titus Tatius’s daughter, Servius Tullius – of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus’s daughter, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus – of  Servius Tullius’s daughter), or as a son of the emperor’s daughter (Romulus - the son of Numitor’s daughter, Ancus Marcius - Numa Pompilius’s daughter, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus – Lucumo’s daughter in Etruria, Servius Tullius - Ocrisia from Corniculum) or, that means the same, as a emperor’s grandson (Tullus Hostilius, Romulus’s grandson = Hostilia, Tarquinius Superbus - Prisca).
The bearer of royalty were the women of the emperors’ families whose husbands became the owners of the imperial title by the right of marriage with them. Traditionally it is Lavinia, Ilia (Rhea Silvia), Tatia, Hersilia , Pompilia, Egeria, Tarquinia, Tullia, Lucretia. In the ceremony of "sacred" marriage the tsar and the tsarina represented the main deities of their community. Their children of "divine origin” could not aspire to an imperial title in their community, but were desired grooms for emperors’ daughters of other "cities" of Latium. Sacral union of “30 cities”, apparently, bound all royal families into a single system of potential marriage partners.
The bearer of the royal title became either the tsar’s son-in-law, who was simultaneously his nephew, or the tsar’s grandson, who was his daughter’s son, whose husband was the tsar in other "city".

We see in Ancient Rome the same model of coming to power, as in Mexico, Arabia, India and Byzantium.

The legal doctrine Partus sequitur ventrem was a part of the colonial law which was taken in Virginia in 1662, and soon in other colonies. The doctrine said: “All children born in this country, should be considered in slavery or free only according to the status of the mother...” Doctrine Partus sequitur ventrem (the literal translation: that which is brought forth follows the belly) directly followed from the Roman civil law and totally dominated in colonies.

John III the Peaceful (von der Mark) married Maria von Jülich-Berg, the daughter and the inheritor of Duke William IV von Jülich-Berg in 1509. After his father-in-law’s death in 1511, he became a regent with the wife, and accepted the title of Duke von Jülich-Berg.

Nicolas Gerard Victor Grunitzky was the president of Togo in 1963 - 1967. The son of the retired German officer and the African princess Elisabeth Sossime Adjonou from Amegashi royal family. Its predecessor Sylvanus Olympio was the son of the Brazilian slave trader and the princess of the Yoruba people.

Polygamy has deep practical sense in the conditions of matriarchy. The more wives one has, the more dowry (lands and people) the polygamist controls.
The Tale of Bygone Years: “Vladimir was obsessed with lust, and he had wives […], and 300 concubines in Vyshgorod, 300 in Belgorod and 200 in Berestov …”.
August II from Meissen, as they write, had 80 "mistresses".
Philipp, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse had two official wives.
Emperors Charles the Great, Lothar and Pepin had several wives.
On July, 23rd, 1534 The city of Muenster proclaimed polygamy as the best form of marriage.
And here is Phillip II's family, the king of Spanish and Portuguese.

1st wife: Maria de Avis. She married when she was 16, had a baby at the age of 18, died in 2 days.
2nd wife: Maria I Tudor. She married when she was 38, had a baby at the age of 39, died when she was 42.
3rd wife: Elizabeth Valois. She married when she was 14, had a baby at the age of 21, died when she was 23.
4th wife: Anna Habsburg. She married when she was 21, had a baby at the age of 22, died when she was31.

Early death rate is a norm of political life. The child is given to a wet nurse, and his mother is helped to die or enter a monastery. The purpose of this operation is to get children with whom the polygamist becomes a lawful regent. In Europe polygamy was regarded as not Christian practice since 1771 when inquisitions allowed to open cases on polygamists for the first time.

Oprichnina it is a part of lands of the grand duchesses, at their full and direct disposal. Oprichnina in the Moscow princedom was the land terror given to out a widow after partition of her former husband’s property. Wiki emphasizes that oprichnina was not regulated by any legislation, and it is a legal nonsense: property cannot exist without any legal tradition.
Her we have normal matrilineal property and power transfer in notable families - in the form of dowry. When a husband dies, the dowry (indivisible in a common law) is reverted to a widow with her children. For this reason, Europe was similar to a scrappy blanket up to second half of 19 century.

Ivan the Terrible ruled at four levels:
1. The property and people belonging to his own family
2. Dowry, belonging his wives (oprichnina) - as a regent with common children
3. As the grand duke - boyars of the Moscow kingdom (without direct access to their property)
4. As the elective tsar of whole Russia - zemshchina, that is, the nobility, allied to the Moscow kingdom: Estonia, the Caucasus, the Volga region (without direct access to their property, as well)
We see that at every level tsar Ivan was not a proprietor (the private property did not exist at that time), but only the plenipotentiary managing director. In each case the proprietor is a collective - the family.

The write that the matriarchal society has developed due of disordered sexual relation (greetings to Freud), when the authentic parent is one - mum. In practice, any disorder frustrates a person - it complicates prediction. Actively advertised idea about group sex of savages is not proven. The most primitive Amazonian tribes have already got legal norms protecting their families: for seducing of someone’s wife her husband has the right to knock the seducer with a cudgel on the head. And the guilty patiently waits until he is punished.
The so-called “group marriage” is collective responsibility for women and children, instead of group sex; people are inclined to form steady pairs - let them be just for 3-4 years, but during all this time they will be steady. People feel more comfortable in such pairs.

Matriarchy has developed owing to initially different forms of responsibility. Only adults go hunting and each man is obliged to be responsible for himself. In village four people from five are children; seniors bear responsibility for them, and these seniors are woman. As a result, two types of hierarchy develop in a tribe synchronously: the business one (male type) and family one (female type). The purpose of the male type hierarchy is prey, and a person is just means for the purpose achievement. The group can lose a person while hunting and cannot return with empty hands. In the female type hierarchy, prey is only means, let it be a key one, but it is only means, and the purpose is a person (the survived offspring). Therefore, the society arranges business according to the male model, and the main social institutes - to the female one.

Despite mentioned above, the matriarchal society is in great need of the man on the top. The cause is the following: intrinsic readiness of the man to achieve the purpose, despite the means. In a situation regular (in practice, inevitable) conflicts someone is required, capable to force the most impudent guys to follow the law. Moreover, the far this man from the interests of certain families, the more effective he will work. For this reason the king is usually a stranger for the people, the foreign knight who has anyhow proved that is worthy marriage with the people’s own princess.

The exact meaning of the word "matriarchy" is "maternal by origin". A root "arch" "power" does not have the meaning “power” and in the best way to see the nature of this root is to compare the words where it is the beginning of a word: archaic, archeology, archive.

Matriarchal (in exact meaning of this word) relationship entirely predetermined the civilisation growth and development until at least 1771, and to a considerable extent - to the middle of 19 century. Distortion of matriarchal sense of historical events or excluding of this sense out of this research interferes with an establishment of the historical truth, first of all, in history of the power and assets inheritance.

Monday, 5 August 2019

Submission ritual

Andrew Stepanenko
May 28, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna

We should begin this book with this chapter, but to begin with it means to lose some part of readers, it is a tough stuff. Therefore, it was hidden far away from the beginning. We promise that there will not be so tough texts in this book any more.

Here is one of the submission rituals, most popular among primacies.
“I saw once in the Berlin Zoo as two strong old male-hamadryads for some moment were locked in a serious fight. In a second one of them fled, and the winner pursued him untill at last he was not forced into the corner, and the defeated male had nothing to do, except using submissiveness gesture. In the response, the winner immediately turned away and walked away proudly, on the straight paws.
Then the defeated, squalling, came up with him and started importunately pursuing him with his moved up ass until the strongest male did not “took into consideration” his submissiveness: quite bored-looking he saddled the other male and made some careless intromittent movements. Only after that the defeated male came down, obviously convinced that his mutiny was forgiven”. Konrad Lorenz "Aggression"
V.R. Dolnik in his article "Is life a gender solution or gender - a life solution?" shows a picture and writes that “people also use this posture, but it is not accepted in a well-bred society now and substituted for others”.

V.R. Dolnik did not show the hardest model - with the second (dominant) male and intromittent movements, but it is presented in a film “Shocking Africa” at the festival of a rather culturally-developed African tribe.

It is not sex, it is public demonstration of hierarchy. Who is who. It was impossible to avoid; the child who understood that there was nothing good for him there, and tried to hide, was caught and immediately pointed, where his place was.

And it was not punishment for escape as directors of the film tried to represent. Judging by the same procedure with the second child, it was a measure of pedagogical precaution, it helped to extinguish future mutinies of inevitably growing boys beforehand.

The measure is not excessive. There are evidences on massacre of the senior men in the 19th century in the Caucasus and in the 19th century in Africa. In more humane cases the seniors are forced to go through a status demotion ceremony, and they have to wear female skirts till the end of their life.
This tribe has already passed through all that, they have become wiser, and the future men are forced in the subordinated position since their childhood. The technology is effective enough in view of equality of the symbol and the action. So in the Russian prison I order to lower a convict in the rank of abused it is not always necessary to rape him, a symbolical ritual is quite enough, - and the person will never be able to change his new status.

The Templars were up to the ears in sodomy, but was it sodomy? Here Ann Gilmore-Brayson from the University of Melbourne writes in her work “The Templars and sodomy”.

“Paragraphs 30-33 from the list of declared offences pointed out various forbidden kisses, namely: of the back, the bottom of the back, the buttocks, the anus, the breast, the belly or the penis”.
«The following 5 articles of buttock say that such actions were legitimate and the members of the order “must perform and tolerate them”.
“… the worst one was sodomy between confessors and spiritual sons”.
So, here we see the system in which the younger members symbolically submit to seniors. For example, so, through kisses almost in a Templars’ style (of the back, the bottom of the back, the buttocks and the anus):

Or so. The quality is low, but in the film we can clearly see that the subordinated male sucks the wooden imitation of the chief’s penis. What were the Templars charged with? – “kisses of the penis”?

By the way, individuals with a low status do not feel any pleasure at all to take part in this ceremony.

Here is a suitable evidence from the litigation over the Templars:
“The lay brother Stefan declared … that Brother Pavel had desire “to deprave and profane him with this vicious sin, … sodomy …, however his hatred to this vice was so strong that he struck Pavel in the chin, having broken three teeth and having shattered his inferior jow”.
It is very likely that Brother Stefan was reprimanded by the church bosses not because he preferred women, but for that Brother Pavel was more senior in rank, and got beat contrary to the rules. Not without reason “Some historians as, for example, Gershon Legman, are convinced that the Templars practiced homosexual relations though are not assured concerning the causes of these obscene acts …” (Ann Gilmore-Brayson)
It is necessary to tell that the Order of Knights Templars was not an exception, and it was run according to those rules that the society professed.

Homage was the main legal principle of feudalism. But let’s give a definition at first.
HOMAGE [фр. hommage, from homme - person, in the meaning as vassal] – a special symbolical ceremony in the Western Europe of the Middle Ages which completed the conclusion of the vassal contract.
HOMAGE is putting of the folded hands of a vassal in the hands of the seigneur followed by a kiss on the lips.
Traditionally, palms were put together by the obeyed captives or prisoners, stretching hands forward to the winner for rope binding. In religious tradition it means full submission to the Lord in the Highest.
However, it seems, that originally this ritual meant embrace. “Embracing reminds the putting of hands of the vassal in the hands of the seigneur. It expressed symbolical acceptance “in himself”, in the circle of the wards, in “familia”. Yes, indeed, that "surname" that is so clearly observed on Corsica under the name “Cosa Nostra”. In their circle, the kiss means the signature.
So homage looks like on a stage below feudalism:

And so homage looks like two steps above feudalism. The seigneur kisses the vassal, and he, even if he has hetero orientation, does not dare to resist "paternal" love. Because his rank is lower.

And here we see Cosa Nostra.

Once it was a submission symbol, - as in Africa right now.

Nowadays the kiss of two men has got a lot of values - from “a death kiss” to harmless mutual caress of two gays, but originally it was struggle for power.

As it became known recently, the pederasty gene is not present in the human genome. There is some other factor - prostate gland, allowing the male (and only male) to feel pleasure during anal sex, - in a "setup" position (using scientific language), that is, on all fours. The nature has taken care of that males will not kill each other and the human race will proceeded, - one way or another. The one who has trembled, leaves for a while the group of inseminators, but when leaders perish the abused normally pick up the fallen banner of true men and continue to lead the crazy flock forward.

Here we have two citations at once.
“The most widespread synonym the word “vassal" is "ami ","friend”, and even more frequent –“dru”, an ancient word, obviously, of Celtic origin, which also meant "friend", but with a shade of meaning that this friend was chosen, because “dru” was sometimes used for the beloved woman, but never to relatives, as opposed to “ami”.
“When the Provençal poetry began to cultivate courtly love … poets began to use a strange expression for a beloved woman: Bel Senhor, “my fair seigneur”, in a masculine gender as it would be used to for the mister; but we know the fact that such pseudonym was used for one of beauties, Bertrand dе Born”.
So, we see that the seigneur called his vassal as a woman - “dru”.
And the knight called his beloved Bertrand in a masculine gender.
Moreover, if “marriage” is translated as “obtaining of the husband status”, so then how is “homage” (hommage) translated? Thus, there are no other variants, except one: obtaining of the "homo" status, that is, to become a “dru”, that is, a beloved one. So, that is our thoughts are in a muddle, not theirs. At for them it was absolutely clear: at early stages, the one who was above, he was the seigneur, and later on, - the one who was the seigneur, he was above.

The key fact: family relations were similar to the vassal ones. Mark Block writes that seigneurs forced peasants to breastfeed their children. And still there was the right of the first night - coinciding to details with the right of the shaman for defloration. And there was homage when vassals lived with the seigneur in the beginning, and the master was "the old man" (the seigneur, the mister), giving bread (lord), and his companions were his comrades (gazindi), guys (vassi, thegns, knights) and – what is more important - hangers-on (buccellari, hlafoetan).
We see an extremely distinct family-breeding scheme. Within the limits of this scheme Empress Cixi fed ministers from her hand (cache), and Cossacks lived on the common budget (koszt), and within the limits of this scheme “a serf” could become a soldier and take his place among knights - as equal to them. It is not our imagination; it is real historical, legally described reality. There were only two conditions for such shift: "serf" should prove that he was a stand-up guy and to rise to a submission position in relation to the seigneur.

“The same relations”, - as experienced researchers note, - “existed both on the low and top layers of the society”. Family-feudal relations penetrated all public institutes, both vertically, and across. “If the abbey has a suit in the Royal Court, declares the English feud contract, - the vassal will take his side even against the king”. In the French language there is even a saying specifying a heavy necessity to take a bride to a monastery - for defloration, by the right of the seigneur. Groves and sacred springs, cities and fortresses, money and product taxes belonged not to the Church, as whole, and to its representatives, according to their feudal rights.
The system was total:
- The bishop demanded homage from canons of his Capitulum and from priors of the church district;
- The canons receiving most significant prebends, - from their less rich colleagues;
- Heads of religious assemblages - from the cures of the church parishes related to them.

It is paradoxical, however, the Sacred Inquisition which sent the Templars to the fire for homage, used homage categories itself. For Anglo-Saxon Cynewulf, angels were «thegns» (vassals) of the Lord, and for bishop Eberhard von Bamberg, the Christ was the vassal of the God-father. The same rules of life were also attributed to the Evil One. As researchers point out, the scenes of submission to the Devil represent the best procreations of homage.

It is clear that the homage procedures touch deep, pre-human psychology layers. The male, passing through this ritual, lowered himself in front of his mister, and the question of rivalry was already out of the question. And that fact that all this ceremonialism is attributed to two leading eschatological forces, - God and Devil, - specifies that the human was still on familiar terms with both these forces.

The tribe, the union of tribes, the feud … - the tribal life style (as now in Africa) flows in the medieval feudal structure continuously and frictionlessly - passing antique slaveholding by. For classical slaveholding, there was simply no free space left.
We will remind that the western science has not taken the Marxist theory of public formations: the fact of slaveholding the past is admitted, but not the slaveholding formation as a formation. Considering real experience of a variety of societies of Africa and Asia, existing without a slaveholding formation, this position seems reasonable.

Saturday, 3 August 2019

Chronology of the colonial goods

Andrew Stepanenko
25 May, 2019 <>

Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna 

There are three reliable bases for dating of Europeans’ crossing the borders of their continent: 1) appearance of the colonial goods in the European markets, 2) acclimatisation of overseas cultures in Europe and 3) acclimatization of overseas cultures to the conditions of other overseas colonies.

Hernan Cortes reported about vanilla growing in Mexico in 1528, and it was described in detail in the work of Bernardino de Sahagun in 1577. However the first attempt to adapt precious vanilla (to the conditions of the Seychelles) was dated in 1756, the second (to the conditions of Java island) – in 1816, and the third (to the conditions of Reunion) - 1819. The gap is, at least, 179 years (1577-1756).
The way to achieve vanilla fructification by artificial pollinating was discovered in 1841 on the French island Reunion (the official version), but the Dutchmen had achieved fructification on Java by 1834, and Frenchmen reaped a harvest in the Seychelles right after 1756.
The date “1756” is doubtful: the role of a pollen tube became clear only in 1836. In 1841 there were no these problems any more.
It is possible to fix a disorder in dating, but the main thing here is that for the first time vanilla began to be supplied officially not from Mexico after 1841.
The epoch date is 1841.

Let’s intentionally make a false assumption that mate and coca are not the same, and consider them separately. It’s necessary to remind here that mate was introduced into the region by Christians (it is dated 1691). For the first time the order to grow “mate potion” was given by Governor-general and the Supreme Court of Asuncion, Hernando Arias de Saavedra - in 1592-1594. Actually, mate plantations appeared in Paraguay only in 1821 when during military special action at the territory of Argentina a botanist Aimé Bonpland was stolen and taken out to Paraguay - a unique qualified expert in this area. Readiness for mate export from Paraguay should be dated 1830 when Bonpland was released when he was not needed. We haven’t found later data concerning mate.
So, the epoch date is 1830.

We will remind that coca was imported to Peru and Bolivia from Mexico. The first news about coca are dated 1505 - in connection with taxes to the Spanish crown, with nature products. In 1571 the volume of coca production was estimated at half a million dollars, but the only consumers of coca were Indians working at silver mines of the South America. From 1785 until 1795, coca-traffic was estimated at 2.641.487 dollars. The consumer of coca was not stated. In 1850 the income of Bolivia for coca realization was 200 thousand dollars, but the consumer was still absent. In 1862, the total revenue of the Latin American countries for coca sale estimated at more than 30 million pounds, but the consumer of this coca was missing. In 1863 in France there appeared wine with coca addition that was connected with the success of chemists, who managed to isolate cocaine. This is the first direct evidence concerning coca entering the European markets.
The epoch date is 1863, however, actually, it is the date of coca naturalization as coca, but not as mate, tea, snuff or chewing tobacco.

We will remind that smoking tobacco was created by cross breeding of the Argentina and Peruvian species, and was delivered to Cuba through Brazil and Colombia, that is, tobacco is a product of the European selectors. The first steady series of the cigar factories foundation in Cuba was in 1844-1848. At this time Europe, America and Russia preferred snuffing and chewing to smoking. Here we have the beginning of the product line.
The epoch date is 1844.

We will remind that, actually, the first snuff was cut coca leaves. For this reason there are no evidences concerning where exactly snuff tobacco was grown. They began to add known to us tobacco into snuff stuff not earlier than 1844.
Snuff production in Europe was developed by Catherine de’ Medici in 1561, but in 1566 she forgot about it in a odd way, and the following first snuff factory was created already in Seville in 1620. Then snuff appeared in China, Germany, and only in 1730 - in Virginia. Then, in 1733 - again in Germany and, again, for the first time. As you can see, evidences and dates are absolutely unreliable.
In 1794 in the USA snuff was taxed. Smoking and chewing tobacco were not mentioned, and, probably, they just did not exist at that time. The causes were purely of technological character: for chewing tobacco, it was necessary to be able to extract alkaloids, and this problem would be solved only in 1820. Well, and smoking tobacco would become the object of selectors’ interest about 1844.
In 1837 there appeared the first statistics of snuff tobacco production in Russia, at Zhukov's factory, and it is the first date of reliable snuff fixing in the Old World.
We would assume as the epoch date 1794 – the year when snuff was taxed.

The first box with chewing tobacco was produced in Stockholm in 1822. As a result chewing tobacco became extremely popular in Scandinavia, and smoking tobacco which came later could not fully force it out. We trust this evidence. In Sweden there worked the best chemists of that epoch, and in 1820 they learnt to extend alkaloids from leaves using lime, leach and potash. Without lime it was not possible to obtain chewing tobacco. In 1860 on the accounting records of Virginia and Northern Carolina, there were 348 factories manufacturing chewing tobacco in these states, and only 6 of them produced smoking tobacco, as a by-product from waste of the basic production.
The epoch date is 1822.

Evidences and dates are mostly doubtful. The first reliable fact seams foundation of a pipe tobacco factory by Robert Morris and his son in 1858. As the second reliable evidence we consider the permission of pipe tobacco sale in Russia in 1860. It is just the most beginning of cheap variants of smoking tobacco - soon after appearance of the expensive variant - cigars (1844-1848).
We will remind that smoking in the street in Russia ceased to be a crime only in 1865, and opium intake, not in the form of solution, but by means of smoking had started to develop in California since 1871. The technology of smoking was still new.
The epoch date is 1858.

1828 Sample planting of tobacco in Crimea
1829 First planting of tobacco in Mysore (India)
We suppose, it is about the contemporary tobacco.
The epoch date is 1828.

They write that Hernan Cortes had seen for cocoa the first time in Mexico, but it was already cultivated cocoa species - Criollo. The cocoa native land is Peru. Genetics have very precisely located the progenitor birthplace, this is Iquitos. We will present a map of genetic clusters.

And here is a problem. The Maya Empire had never reached such size and had no commercial relations with these places. Here is the Empire map.

By Aldan-2 - [1][2], CC BY-SA 4.0,

The Europeans are again under suspicion. We will list the basic arguments.

1. Europeans are the only stratum in the region, having technical possibility to carry out so scale rotation of inoculum.
2. The same pattern as the one with cocoa (selection, inoculum transfer and acclimatization), happens with coca and tobacco. It is already a complete system, and neither the Maya, nor the Peruvians of cultural haven’t left traces in this system, - we can only see the European traces.
3. They write that the Aztecs had known cocoa since XIV century, that is, rather close to the epoch of Mexico conquer by Hernan Cortes. Deflections of dates up to 250 years in the history of colonies is an ordinary fact.
4. The Aztecs considered cocoa as a gift of Quetzalcoatl, and Quetzalcoatl  was Hernan Cortes. Perhaps, it’s better to summarize all facts in a table.

Deity: Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl
The conquistador: Hernan Cortes Ketsalkoatl

Deity: the Source: American Indian chronicles
The conquistador: the Source: American Indian and Spanish chronicles

Deity: arrived in the year of Cē Ācatl (Cane)
The conquistador: arrived in the year of Cē Ācatl (Cane)

Deity: arrived by sea, from the east
The conquistador: arrived by sea, from the east

Deity: tall, white-skinned, bearded
The conquistador: tall, white-skinned, bearded

Deity: wore not American Indian metal helmet
The conquistador: wore not American Indian metal helmet

Deity: conquered the capital - Tenōchtitlan
The conquistador: conquered the capital - Tenōchtitlan

Deity: was expelled from the capital by conspirators
The conquistador: was expelled from the capital by conspirators

Deity: came back and brought the power back
The conquistador: came back and brought the power back

Deity: conquered all the Maya territory
The conquistador: conquered all the Maya territory

Deity: taught monogamy
The conquistador: taught Christian monogamy

Deity: forbade human sacrifices
The conquistador: forbade human sacrifices

Deity: presented a calendar and marked the doomsday date
The conquistador: presented the European calendar and marked "Apocalypse"

Deity: all reforms were made during his life
The conquistador: all reforms were made during his life

Deity: bore a name of Nakshitl - Four-footed
The conquistador: had a general for horsemen nickname - Four-footed

Deity: around his epoch the Maya city became empty
The conquistador: during time of his reign 95 % of the population of Mexico died because of smallpox

Deity: departured on a raft made from snakes to the east
The conquistador: departured by the ship made from boards to the east

Deity: sailed from Mexico as an elderly person
The conquistador: sailed from Mexico to Spain at the age of 55

Deity: promised to return to Mexico personally
The conquistador: had full opportunity to return personally

Deity: ruled 19 years
The conquistador: ruled 19 years (1521-1540)

Deity: a real historical figure
The conquistador: a real historical figure

Deity: idolised as Ketsalkoatl
The conquistador: idolised as Ketsalkoatl

Deity: In Chichén-Itzá there was a holiday of enemies three times
The conquistador: Cortes invaded Mēxihcah three times

Deity: Chichén-Itzá - a reservoir of Itzá people
The conquistador: Mēxihcah was on a lake

5. Cocoa-beans were used as payment means, and it is a standard European work scheme in colonies: the population was laid under tribute with nature product which had maximum value in Europe. Therefore, in Cuzco they paid their tithe with coca, in India with opium, and in Mexico City - cocoa beans.
6. Iquitos - the native land of the cocoa progenitor - was founded by Jesuits in 1757. Here in 1864 “the rubber fever” began, and the heart of all that process was the same - thoughtful selection work, huge investments and super-profits as a result. It not the American Indian work organization.

That will do. Among counterarguments, we have found the only one: somewhere have found a fossil pot with traces of two alkaloids, and one of them was theobromine. Neither pre-European plantations, nor pre-European warehouses for cocoa, nor pre-European dishes for cocoa were found. We can see pictures from the Vatican library, but no dishes in the museum - only modern, Europeanized. After all, considering ostensibly ritual drinking tradition, such dishes - with integral ethnic colour - should be in every house.

Already in 1525, 4 years after Cortes's invading Mexico, Criollo cocoa was imported to Tobago. That put the well-known history of invading Mexico under question. And in 1530 German company Welser got engaged in cocoa cultivation. How Welser got in touch with Cortes was not reported.
In 1784 cocoa was already not a secret any longer, but was not imported neither to Jamaica, nor to West India yet, and it is indeed a historical problem.
In 1810 encyclopaedia Britannica had no information about Mexican cocoa, deliveries were made from the South America.
The first chocolate factory was founded in 1819, soon after invention of the technology of cocoa-powder dissolution. The epoch date seams to be 1819, but there is still something else.
In 1834 cocoa was imported into Sri Lanka for the first time, and it is already a reliable evidence.
The epoch date is 1834.

Sugar is the Old World product, and, extremely expensive, so we suppose, sweet stuff helped the conventional East to develop. Sugar is fast energy for the body. For this reason the development of beet and sugarcane growing should become № 1 problem. We observe realistic evidences.

1822 - the first sugar beet appeared in Ukraine
1827 - the first sugar beet appeared in Russia
1829 - (the date is approximate) the first sugarcane planting were started in India
1830 – the first ideas of sugarcane planted in the USA appeared
1831 - (the date is calculated) the first sugarcane plantations appeared in Louisiana
1835 - the first sugarcane plantations appeared in Hawaii
From 1838 till 1879 there were about 14 unsuccessful attempts to adjust sugar beet output in the USA
Winnebago and Chippewa tribes supplied a lot of maple syrup to the North West Fur Company. The most of maple sugar and syrup was produced in the period from 1850 to 1890. That is, even in the period of 1850-1890 the sugar hunger had not been satisfied yet.

As the text purpose is to date a real outlet of Europe in the outer market, the epoch date is 1829, the first sugarcane planting in India.

Apples of love was not the most important product, that is why for the first time manufacturers got interested in it in 1876: Heinz started to produce ketchup. In Crimea, it was planted for the first time in 1883. Dates are real.
The epoch date is 1876.

Archeologists assert that sunflower seeds were found in the Moscow suburbs territory at excavations sites of the ancient settlement dated VII-V centuries B.C. This error of dating is not our problem but it is necessary to know about such things.
In 1510 the sunflower was planted in the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, and in 1769 there was the first mention of industrial cultivation of sunflower. The gap is 259 years, and we have already seen this gap - in the Spanish evidences concerning geographical discoveries. In general, Europe was not interested in sunflower.
In 1828 in Russia, the serf from the Alekseevskaya village produced sunflower seed oil for the first time. In 1842 in Russia, the serf from the Alekseevskaya village produced sunflower seed oil for the first time once again. In such situation, the second date is more reliable.
The epoch date is 1842.

In 1515 corn has been planted in all parts of Southern Europe, however this magnificent culture was used in national cuisine only in Moldova. In 1540, thanks to Turks, corn appeared in Egypt, and thus the American settlers received a corn harvest for the first time in 1770, 255 years later after it was in widely planted in all Southern Europe. Here we have the same gap of 250 years that we have seen in the Chronology of geographical discoveries.

To England corn have started to import in 1828, into France - in 1831, and in 1847 in Russia have begun free distribution of corn seeds - for encouragement of deluting of new culture.
Epoch date 1828 though also 1847 is good.

In 1795 they finally grew 8.3 kg of potato in England, that is, potato introduction by the tsar Peter I in Russia at the beginning of the 18 century seems doubtful. In 1813 potato was grown in Perm, but not in sufficient quantity. In 1817 potato hunger in Ireland is fixed. The cause of interest to this culture was as follows: potato was necessary for paper and paste production. Frenchmen also managed even to make explosive out of it, and, judging by regular potato revolts, peasants were forced to grow potato for the needs of the state to the detriment of own communities’ needs. In Krasnoyarsk in 1835 and there was the following situation: the households that were not engaged in potato growing for the country were sent to build fortresses. So potato was ground into starch by the whole village, and all that product was taken out from the village.
In 1820 the first potato was planted on Hawaii.
In 1834 there passed a series of potato mutinies in Russia.
The epoch date is 1817. Judging by hunger, it is the first date of mass planting.

For the first time the sapling of a cinchona tree was exported from the South America to Java in 1852.
The second batch of saplings was exported in 1865. It was also the beginning.
The epoch date is 1852.

In 1839 it was possible to create the real rubber.
In 1864, with delay in 25 years, “the rubber fever” began in the Jesuit city of Iquitos.
Only in 1876 hevea seeds were stolen at last, exported, and in 1889 mature saplings of rubber-bearing plants were offered to the farmers of Malaysia
The epoch date is 1864 – the year of the beginning of "the rubber fever”.

Quite innocent tea forms a basis for added psychoactive stuff, the same as tobacco for opium. The assimilated better with a basic stuff.

1834 Java. The first tea plantation
1834-1835 England. The tea-plant breeding committee in India was created
1836 India. The first batch of Assam tea occurred in the markets of Calcutta
1838 England, India. A small batch of the Indian tea was sent to England
1838 France. Several thousand tea-plants were planted in the south of the country
1839 India. Tea plantations in Bengal are laid out
1840 England. Duchess of Bedford, brought into fashion evening tea drinking
1897 England. The new tradition - a morning lunch with tea - was introduced

The epoch date is 1834.

They write that hashish was imported into Europe by Napoleon - after the Egyptian campaign, however for the first time Paris tried to eat hashish (nobody did not smoke, and did not know what it was at that time) in the Club des Hashischins only in 1843. Hashish got into hands of physicians a bit earlier - in 1840-1841. In Greece marihuana was started to grow in 1875. It brings under question a great amount of medieval and antique evidences, however, actually, it is easy to understand: in 1840-1843 hashish got into free sale, became accessible to everyone, and before that it circulated in a quite narrow circle of hospitals and drugstores.
The epoch date is 1843.

There are a lot of events, therefore we take only concerning business.
In 1813 the development of coffee plantations began in Brazil
In 1814 Jamaica manufactured 34 million pounds of coffee
In 1815 coffee was mentioned on Sumatra
In 1817 coffee was planted on Hawaii
In 1820 Cuba exported 10 thousand tons of coffee
In 1820 they started to drink coffee in Scandinavia
In 1825 the British laid out coffee plantations on Ceylon Island
In 1829 they started to grow coffee in Mysore (India)
In 1834 coffee became the basic culture of Brazil
In 1834 there appeared the first coffee plantations in El Salvador
In 1844 there appeared the first coffee plantations in Nicaragua
In 1854 coffee plantations were laid out in Guatemala

A sequence is quite logical. We could not find sufficient evidences until 1813. They write that coffee was grown in Cuba, in Mexico, in Santo-Domingo in 1790, however, there are no reasons that the others countries (in particular, Brazil) lagged behind for so many years.
The epoch date is 1813.

The Peruvian cotton is a long-fiber type, that is why it is suitable for weaving. In 1793 Louisiana manufactured the first 90 pounds of cotton. It is important, because sugarcane was introduced even later in Louisiana, by 1831. It makes slaves import to be entirely devoid of sense. There was still no work for slaves there. The history changes a little again.

1817 - Cotton boom started in Alabama and Mississipi
1817 - Peruvian cotton was delivered to Egypt
1820 - 82 % of fabrics were made of hemp
1820 - cotton-cleaning technology pressed hemp industry
1828 - Cotton association propagated cotton seeds
1828 - Peruvian cotton was delivered to India (Berar)
1830 - Peruvian cotton was planted by the Alsatians in Algeria
1840 - Peruvian cotton is planted by the Alsatians in Texas
1880 - the first sowings of cotton appeared in the south of Russia

The first cotton stock exchange was opened in the USA in 1870.

We would appoint the epoch date as 1828, it is the time of active distribution of seeds.

1810 – the first silk factory in America
1829 - silkworm worms were delivered to Bengal from Italy
The epoch date is 1810.

Now we will result the complete list of the epoch dates. It is also the period when the colonies began to work on mother countries.

1794. Snuff was taxed
1810. The first silk factory in America appeared
1813. The development of coffee plantations in Brazil started
1817. Potato hunger in Ireland started
1822. The first box with chewing tobacco
1828. Corn import to England was resolved
1828. Active distribution of Peruvian cotton seeds started
1828. Sample planting of tobacco in the Crimea appeared
1829. The first sugarcane planting in India appeared
1830. Mate plantations in Paraguay were ready to export
1834. Tea-plant Distribution Committee in India
1834. Cocoa was for the first time imported into Sri Lanka
1841. Vanilla began to fructify on Reunion
1842. Sunflower-seed oil was received
1843. Hashish in Paris was on free sale
1844. The first cigar brands were created in Cuba
1852. Export of the cinchona tree saplings from China
1858. The factory of pipe tobacco was built by Robert Morris and his son
1863. Naturalization of coca as coca, instead of tea or tobacco
1864. The beginning of "the rubber fever”
1876. The output of ketchup "Heinz" began

There are two reasons for so the late period:
1. There appeared a steam power-saw bench, and a vessel sewed from boards of machine quality, cost several times cheaper, and was longer in use.
2. There was a violent concentration of the capital, and the great capital was equal to the task to solve those problems - for the first time.

There is a clear gap of about 250 years between the epoch of the America discovery and the epoch of the Jesuits order liquidation. The colonial plants were discovered in the first epoch, and the European science was acquainted with them routinely in the second. Acclimatisation of cultures happened even later – in the 1820s. This third epoch was also an epoch of growing requirement for workforce in the colonies. Until that period there was absolutely no need in manpower from Africa and Europe in the colonies.
The database is used based on 154643 dated historical events, Excel-2007, 30,9 Mb, free download.
Link to Google Disk:

The list of the translated texts:
Chronology of geographical discoveries

Stages of a Сomet Сatastrophe (edited)

Stages of cometary accident in detailes (February, 2nd, 2018)

For those who would like to support the project with donations: Pay Pal